United States Naval Research Laboratory

Naval Research LaboratoryU.S. Naval Research LaboratoryNRLNaval Research LabUS Naval Research LabUS Naval Research LaboratoryNaval Research Laboratory (NRL)U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)Naval Research LaboratoriesU.S. Naval Research Lab
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.wikipedia
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Project Vanguard

VanguardVanguard projectVanguard satellite
Project Vanguard, the first American satellite program, tasked NRL with the design, construction and launch of an artificial satellite, which was accomplished in 1958.
Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida.

Office of Naval Research

ONRU.S. Office of Naval ResearchOffice of Naval Research (ONR)
NRL is one of the first US government scientific R&D laboratories, having opened in 1923 at the instigation of Thomas Edison, and is currently under the Office of Naval Research.
ONR executes its mission through science and technology departments, corporate programs, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and the ONR Global office.

Galactic Radiation and Background

GRABGRAB-1Galactic Radiation and Background (GRAB)
NRL's Galactic Radiation and Background I (GRAB I) was the first U.S. intelligence satellite, mapping out Soviet radar networks from space.
Galactic Radiation and Background (GRAB) was the covername for a series of five Project Dyno ELINT intelligence satellites, the first surveillance satellites operated by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) shortly after the Cold War U-2 incident of 1960.

Coriolis (satellite)

CoriolisWINDSAT
NRL pioneered the study of the sun Ultraviolet and X-Ray spectrum and continues to contribute to the field with satellites like Coriolis (satellite) launched in 2003.
The Coriolis satellite is a Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Earth and space observation satellite launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, on 2003-01-06 at 14:19 GMT.

Global Positioning System

GPSglobal positioning systemsGlobal Positioning System (GPS)
The Global Positioning System (GPS) was invented at NRL and tested by NRL's Timation series of satellites.
Roger L. Easton of the Naval Research Laboratory, Ivan A. Getting of The Aerospace Corporation, and Bradford Parkinson of the Applied Physics Laboratory are credited with inventing it.

Timation

The Global Positioning System (GPS) was invented at NRL and tested by NRL's Timation series of satellites.
The Timation satellites were conceived, developed, and launched by the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. beginning in 1964.

TacSat-4

NRL's spacecraft development program continues today with the TacSat-4 experimental tactical reconnaissance and communication satellite.
The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the program manager.

Tactical Satellite Program

TacSat-2
NRL is also responsible for the Tactical Satellite Program with spacecraft launched in 2006, 2009 and 2011.
During the second half of 2002, the Naval Research Laboratory studied the tactical application of space assets.

Communication Moon Relay

Moon Relaynew Navy communications systemPAMOR
Prior to the success of surveillance satellites, the iconic parabolic antenna atop NRL's main headquarters in Washington, D.C. was part of Communication Moon Relay, a project that utilized signals bounced off the Moon both for long-distance communications research and surveillance of internal Soviet transmissions during the Cold War.
Most of the project's work took place during the 1950s at the United States Naval Research Laboratory.

Minitrack

The NRL designed the first satellite tracking system, Minitrack, which became the prototype for future satellite tracking networks.

Railgun

railgunselectromagnetic railgunrail gun
In 2014, the NRL was researching: armor for munitions in transport, high-powered lasers, remote explosives detection, spintronics, the dynamics of explosive gas mixtures, electromagnetic railgun technology, detection of hidden nuclear materials, graphene devices, high-power extremely high frequency (35–220 GHz) amplifiers, acoustic lensing, information-rich orbital coastline mapping, arctic weather forecasting, global aerosol analysis & prediction, high-density plasmas, millisecond pulsars, broadband laser data links, virtual mission operation centers, battery technology, photonic crystals, carbon nanotube electronics, electronic sensors, mechanical nano-resonators, solid-state chemical sensors, organic opto-electronics, neural-electronic interfaces and self-assembling nanostructures.
Currently different rail shapes and railgun configurations are being tested, most notably by the U.S. Navy (Naval Research Laboratory), the Institute for Advanced Technology at the University of Texas at Austin, and BAE Systems.

Tor (anonymity network)

TorTor anonymity networkTor network
The projects developed by the laboratory often become mainstream applications without public awareness of the developer; an example in computer science is onion routing, the core principle of the anonymizing Tor software.
The core principle of Tor, "onion routing", was developed in the mid-1990s by United States Naval Research Laboratory employees, mathematician Paul Syverson, and computer scientists Michael G. Reed and David Goldschlag, with the purpose of protecting U.S. intelligence communications online.

Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting Model

HWRFHurricane Weather Research and ForecastingHurricane Weather Research and Forecasting model (HWRF)
NRL is also involved in weather forecasting models such as the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting model released in 2007.
The model was developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, the University of Rhode Island, and Florida State University.

Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
The first modern U.S. radar was invented and developed at NRL in Washington, DC in 1922.
Eight years later, Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) observed similar fading effects from passing aircraft; this revelation led to a patent application as well as a proposal for further intensive research on radio-echo signals from moving targets to take place at NRL, where Taylor and Young were based at the time.

Fracture mechanics

crack propagationmicrofracturefracture
Modern mechanical fracture mechanics were pioneered at NRL and were subsequently applied to solve fracture problems in Navy vessels, commercial aircraft and Polaris missiles.
A group working under G. R. Irwin at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) during World War II realized that plasticity must play a significant role in the fracture of ductile materials.

Onion routing

layered encryption routingoniononion network
The projects developed by the laboratory often become mainstream applications without public awareness of the developer; an example in computer science is onion routing, the core principle of the anonymizing Tor software.
Onion routing was developed in the mid-1990s at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory by employees Paul Syverson, Michael G. Reed, and David Goldschlag to protect U.S. intelligence communications online.

Vanguard 1

Vanguard IVanguardVanguard 1C
, Vanguard I and its upper launch stage are still in orbit, making them the longest-lived man-made satellites.
Initial Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) proposals for the project included conical satellite bodies; this eliminated the need for a separate fairing and ejection mechanisms, and their associated weight and failure modes.

IPsec

Internet Protocol SecurityEncapsulating Security PayloadAuthentication Header
The Information Technology Division has a world-class information security R&D group, which is where the IETF's IP Security (IPsec) protocols were originally developed.
In 1992, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began the SIPP project to research and implement IP encryption.

VXS-1

Scientific Development Squadron 1Scientific Development Squadron One (VXS-1)
NRL operates a small squadron of research aircraft termed Scientific Development Squadron ONE VXS-1.
To provide heavy lift aircraft capable of supporting scientific research projects around the world for Naval Research Laboratory, Department of the Navy, U.S. Department of Defense activities, as well as other U.S. government agencies that contribute to Naval Research.

Herbert A. Hauptman

Herbert HauptmanHauptmanHauptman, Herbert A.
In 1985 two scientists at the laboratory, Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle, won the Nobel Prize for devising direct methods employing X-ray diffraction analysis in the determination of crystal structures.
After the war he started a collaboration with Jerome Karle at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. and at the same time enrolled in the Ph.D. program at the University of Maryland, College Park.

Parker Solar Probe

Parker ''Solar ProbeSolar Probe
In addition to spacecraft design, NRL designs and operates spaceborne research instruments and experiments, such as the Strontium Iodide Radiation Instrumentation (SIRI) and RAM Angle and Magnetic field sensor (RAMS) aboard STPSat-5, the Wide-field imager for solar probe (WISP) aboard the Parker Solar Probe, and the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).

Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

Fleet Numerical Oceanography CenterFNMOCNaval Weather Service
FNMOC is co-located with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [[United States Naval Research Laboratory#Ocean and Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate|Marine Meteorology Division]], a representation of successful transition of research into operations.

Vanguard 2

Vanguard IIFirst weather satelliteFirst Weather Satellite, The
Vanguard II was the first satellite to observe the Earth's cloud cover and therefore the first meteorological satellite.

Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling

Joint Base Anacostia-BollingBolling Air Force BaseBolling Field
It is on the Potomac River and is immediately south of (but is not part of) Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling.
The Naval Research Laboratory is not part of the Joint Base but is located immediately adjacent to it.

Monterey, California

MontereyMonterey, CAMonterrey
The Marine Meteorology Division (Naval Research Lab–Monterey, NRL–MRY), located in Monterey, California, contributes to weather forecasting in the United States and around the world by publishing imagery from 18 weather satellites.
Additional military facilities in Monterey include the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center, and the United States Naval Research Laboratory - Monterey.