United States antitrust law

"The Bosses of the Senate", an 1889 political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicting corporate interests—from steel, copper, oil, iron, sugar, tin, and coal to paper bags, envelopes, and salt—as giant money bags looming over the tiny senators at their desks in the Chamber of the United States Senate.
Standard Oil (Refinery No. 1 in Cleveland, Ohio, pictured) was a major company broken up under United States antitrust laws.
The printing equipment company ATF explicitly states in its 1923 manual that its goal is to 'discourage unhealthy competition' in the printing industry.
Since 1922 the courts and Congress have left Major League Baseball, as played at Chicago's Wrigley Field, unrestrained by antitrust laws.
Along with the Federal Trade Commission the Department of Justice in Washington, D.C. is the public enforcer of antitrust law.
Federal Trade Commission building, view from southeast

Collection of mostly federal laws that regulate the conduct and organization of businesses to promote competition and prevent unjustified monopolies.

- United States antitrust law

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Theodore Roosevelt

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

Having assumed the presidency after McKinley's assassination, Roosevelt emerged as a leader of the Republican Party and became a driving force for anti-trust and Progressive policies.

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890

Sen. John Sherman (R–Ohio), the principal author of the Sherman Antitrust Act

The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 is a United States antitrust law which prescribes the rule of free competition among those engaged in commerce.

Progressive Era

Period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States of America that spanned the 1890s to World War I.

The Awakening: "Votes for Women" in 1915 Puck magazine
Charlotte Perkins Gilman (pictured) wrote these articles about feminism for the Atlanta Constitution, published on 10 December 1916.
Colorado judge Ben Lindsey, a pioneer in the establishment of juvenile court systems
Glass works in Indiana, from a 1908 photograph by Lewis Hine
Women's Suffrage Headquarters on Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio in 1912
President Wilson used tariff, currency, and antitrust laws to prime the pump and get the economy working.
Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.
Newspaper reporting the annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898
A cartoon of Uncle Sam seated in restaurant looking at the bill of fare containing "Cuba steak", "Porto Rico pig", the "Philippine Islands" and the "Sandwich Islands" (Hawaii)
Breaker boys sort coal in an anthracite coal breaker near South Pittston, Pennsylvania, 1911

They also sought regulation of monopolies through methods such as trustbusting and corporations through antitrust laws, which were seen as a way to promote equal competition for the advantage of legitimate competitors.

William Howard Taft

The 27th president of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth chief justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.

Taft in 1909
Yale College photograph of Taft
Sultan Jamalul Kiram II with William Howard Taft of the Philippine Commission in Jolo, Sulu (March 27, 1901)
Roosevelt introduces Taft as his crown prince: Puck magazine cover cartoon, 1906.
One of a series of candid photographs known as the Evolution of a Smile, taken just after a formal portrait session, as Taft learns by telephone from Roosevelt of his nomination for president.
1908 Taft/Sherman poster
1908 electoral vote results
1909 inauguration
Newton McConnell cartoon showing Canadian suspicions that Taft and others were only interested in Canada when prosperous.
Taft and Porfirio Díaz, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, 1909
Official White House portrait of Taft by Anders Zorn, c. 1911
Taft promoted Associate Justice Edward Douglass White to be Chief Justice of the United States.
1909 Puck magazine cover: Roosevelt departs, entrusting his policies to Taft
Taft with Archibald Butt (second from right)
Taft and Roosevelt – political enemies in 1912
Campaign advertisement arguing Taft deserved a second term
Electoral vote by state, 1912. States won by Taft are in red.
Taft (left) with President Warren G. Harding and Robert Lincoln at the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial, May 30, 1922
Chief Justice Taft, c. 1921
The U.S. Supreme Court in 1925. Taft is seated in the bottom row, middle.
Time cover, June 30, 1924
Taft insisted that Charles Evans Hughes succeed him as chief justice.
Taft's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery
Four-cent stamp issued for Taft (1930)

Controversies over conservation and antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to further separate the two men.

Price fixing

Anticompetitive agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market conditions such that the price is maintained at a given level by controlling supply and demand.

Does Price Fixing Destroy Liberty? (1920) by George Howard Earle Jr.

That is why OPEC, the global petroleum cartel, has not been prosecuted or successfully sued under US antitrust law.

Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914

"The Bosses of the Senate", an 1889 political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicting corporate interests—from steel, copper, oil, iron, sugar, tin, and coal to paper bags, envelopes, and salt—as giant money bags looming over the tiny senators at their desks in the Chamber of the United States Senate.

The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 (, codified at, ), is a part of United States antitrust law with the goal of adding further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime; the Clayton Act seeks to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency.

Robert Bork

American judge, government official, and legal scholar who served as the Solicitor General of the United States from 1973 to 1977.

Bork greeting President Gerald Ford in 1975
Bork (right) with President Ronald Reagan, 1987

He also became an influential antitrust scholar, arguing that consumers often benefited from corporate mergers and that antitrust law should focus on consumer welfare rather than on ensuring competition.

United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division

The United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division is the division of the U.S. Department of Justice that enforces U.S. antitrust law.

Breakup of the Bell System

Mandated on January 8, 1982, by an agreed consent decree providing that AT&T Corporation would, as had been initially proposed by AT&T, relinquish control of the Bell Operating Companies, which had provided local telephone service in the United States and Canada up until that point.

Telecommunications situation in the contiguous United States immediately following the Bell System's dissolution in 1984
A Verizon payphone with the Bell logo

This divestiture was initiated by the filing in 1974 by the United States Department of Justice of an antitrust lawsuit against AT&T.

Texaco

American oil brand owned and operated by Chevron Corporation.

Texas Company Building at San Jacinto and Rusk in Houston. The company then moved to larger facilities in 1989
"The Texas Company" Galveston station, c. 1910-20
TEXACO MOTOR OIL Poster (1928)
1939 Texaco tanker truck by Dodge on display at the Henry Ford Museum
Historic gasoline pumps in the Ambler's Texaco Gas Station, Dwight, Illinois
Texaco gas pumps in Milford, Illinois, photographed in 1977
Station in Arroyo Grande, California, 1977
Texaco fuel station in Poá (São Paulo), Brazil, 2009
A Texaco station in California, 2011
Texaco station in Bebington, UK, 2018
Racing driver Nigel Mansell driving in the 1993 CART IndyCar World Series
Kenny Irwin Jr. driving in the 1998 NASCAR Winston Cup
The No.7 Eggenberger Motorsport Ford Sierra RS500 of Klaus Ludwig and Klaus Niedzwiedz. Eggenberger Motorsport won the 1987 WTCC Entrants Championship

This gave rise to the 2006 U.S. Supreme Court antitrust case of Texaco Inc. v. Dagher, which cleared both Texaco and Shell of any antitrust liability concerning the pricing of Equilon's gasoline.