United States congressional apportionment

reapportionmentCongressional apportionmentapportionedapportionmentCongressional re-apportionmentreapportionedApportionment Billredistrictingaddedsize of the House
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution.wikipedia
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United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeU.S. House of RepresentativesUnited States Representative
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution.
The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435.

United States Census

U.S. CensuscensusUS Census
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution.
The United States Census (plural censuses or censi) is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers... . The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years".

List of United States congressional districts

congressional districtscongressional districtdistrict
If the number of seats has changed, the state determines the boundaries of congressional districts—geographical areas within the state of approximately equal population—in a process called redistricting.
The Bureau of the Census conducts a constitutionally mandated decennial census whose figures are used to determine the number of congressional districts to which each state is entitled, in a process called "apportionment".

Reapportionment Act of 1929

Census and Reapportionment BillFederal Reapportionment plan
The number of voting seats in the House of Representatives has been 435 since 1913, capped at that number by the Reapportionment Act of 1929—except for a temporary (1959–1962) increase to 437 when Alaska and Hawaii were admitted into the Union.
It was not clear whether these requirements were still in effect until in 1932 the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Wood v. Broom that the provisions of each apportionment act affected only the apportionment for which they were written.

Clerk of the United States House of Representatives

ClerkClerk of the House of RepresentativesClerk of the House
Federal law requires the Clerk of the House of Representatives to notify each state government no later than January 25 of the year immediately following the census of the number of seats to which it is entitled.
Federal law requires the Clerk to notify each state government of the number of seats apportioned to the state no later than January 25 of the year immediately following each decennial census.

U.S. state

StatestatesU. S. state
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution.
Seats in the House are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 1787
George Washington agreed that the original representation proposed during the Constitutional Convention (one representative for every 40,000) was inadequate and supported an alteration to reduce that number to 30,000.
Representation in both houses of Congress would be apportioned according either to "quotas of contribution" (a state's wealth as reflected in the taxes it paid) or the size of each state's non-slave population.

Wyoming Rule

The proposed Wyoming Rule calls for expanding the House until the standard Representative-to-population ratio equals that of the smallest entitled unit (currently the state of Wyoming).
The Wyoming Rule is a proposal to increase the size of the United States House of Representatives so that the standard representative-to-population ratio would be that of the smallest entitled unit, which is currently Wyoming.

Clemons v. Department of Commerce

A 2009 lawsuit, Clemons v. Department of Commerce, sought a court order for Congress to increase the size of the House's voting membership and then reapportion the seats in accordance with the population figures of the 2010 Census.
Clemons v. Department of Commerce (see also United States congressional apportionment#Controversy and history) was a lawsuit filed in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Mississippi on September 17, 2009, and unsuccessfully appealed to the United States Supreme Court, that challenged the constitutionality of the law setting membership in the United States House of Representatives at 435 members.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution.

Apportionment Act of 1792

addedApportionment Act
After the first Census in 1790, Congress passed the Apportionment Act of 1792 and adopted the Jefferson method to apportion U.S. Representatives to the states based on population.
The Apportionment Act of 1792 was the first Apportionment Act passed by the United States Congress on April 10, 1792, and signed into law by President George Washington on April 14, 1792.

2010 United States Census

2010 census20102010 U.S. Census
A 2009 lawsuit, Clemons v. Department of Commerce (see also controversy and history of United States congressional apportionment), sought a court order for Congress to reapportion the House of Representatives with a greater number of members following the census, to rectify under- and over-representation of some states under the so-called 435 rule established by the Apportionment Act of 1911, which limits the number of U.S. Representatives to that number, meaning that some states are slightly underrepresented proportionate to their true population and that others are slightly overrepresented by the same standard.

Webster/Sainte-Laguë method

Sainte-Laguë methodSainte-Laguëmodified Sainte-Laguë method
The Webster method, proposed in 1832 by Daniel Webster and adopted for the 1840 Census, allocated an additional Representative to states with a fractional remainder greater than 0.5.
Webster first proposed the method in 1832 and in 1842 the method was adopted for proportional allocation of seats in United States congressional apportionment (Act of 25 June 1842, ch 46, 5 Stat.

United States Census Bureau

U.S. Census BureauUS Census BureauCensus Bureau
On December 21, 2010 the U.S. Census Bureau released its official apportionment results for congressional representation.
Article One of the United States Constitution (section II) directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College.

Apportionment (politics)

reapportionmentmalapportionmentapportionment
Each state is apportioned a number of seats which approximately corresponds to its share of the aggregate population of the 50 states.

Redistricting

Redistrictedredrawnredistribution
If the number of seats has changed, the state determines the boundaries of congressional districts—geographical areas within the state of approximately equal population—in a process called redistricting.

2000 United States Census

20002000 censusCensus 2000
The results of the census are used to determine how many congressional districts each state is apportioned.

Apportionment paradox

Alabama paradoxanomaliesparadoxical behaviour
The Vinton or Hamilton method was shown to be susceptible to an apportionment paradox.
The size of the House is set by statute.

Largest remainder method

Hare quotalargest remainderHamilton's method
The Hamilton/Vinton (largest remainder) method was used from 1850 until 1900.
It was first adopted to apportion the U.S. House of Representatives every ten years between 1852 and 1900.

1880 United States Census

1880 census1880Population
The results from the census were used to determine the apportionment for the 48th, 49th, 50th, 51st, and 52nd sessions of the United States Congress.

Apportionment Act of 1911

Public Law 62-5fixed by law1911
The Apportionment Act of 1911 (Public Law 62-5) raised the membership of the U.S. House to 433 and provided for an apportionment.

1870 United States Census

1870 census18701870 U.S. Census
When considering Congressional Apportionment, the total State population of the Constitutional population was used.

D'Hondt method

D'Hondtproportional representation (PR)D'Hondt system
After the first Census in 1790, Congress passed the Apportionment Act of 1792 and adopted the Jefferson method to apportion U.S. Representatives to the states based on population.
Statesman and future US President Thomas Jefferson devised the method in 1792 for the U.S. congressional apportionment pursuant to the First United States Census.

United States Congress

CongressU.S. CongressCongressional
Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.

List of U.S. states and territories by historical population

List of U.S. states by historical populationpopulation
Although the decennial census collects a variety of information that used in demographic studies, marketing, and other enterprises, the purpose of the census as stated in the Constitution is to produce an "actual enumeration" of the number of persons in the states in order to calculate their Congressional apportionment.