United States congressional apportionment

Allocation of congressional districts in the House of Representatives after the 2020 U.S. Census
Allocation of congressional districts after the 2010 U.S. Census
Allocation of congressional districts after the 2000 U.S. Census
The 435 seats of the House grouped by state (post-2010 Census reapportionment)
Allocation of seats by state, as percentage of overall number of representatives in the House, 1789-2020 Census
The U.S. population has increased more rapidly than the membership of the House of Representatives.

[[File:USCongressionalRedistrictingPartisanControl2020.svg|350px|thumb|Partisan control of congressional redistricting after the 2020 elections, with the number of U.S. House seats each state will receive.

- United States congressional apportionment

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United States Electoral College

Group of presidential electors required by the Constitution to form every four years for the sole purpose of appointing the president and vice president.

Electoral votes, out of 538, allocated to each state and the District of Columbia for presidential elections to be held in 2024 and 2028, based on representation, which depends on population data from the 2020 census. Every jurisdiction is entitled to at least 3.
In the 2020 presidential election (held using 2010 census data) Joe Biden received 306 and Donald Trump 232 of the total 538 electoral votes.
In Maine (upper-right) and Nebraska (center), the small circled numbers indicate congressional districts. These are the only two states to use a district method for some of their allocated electors, instead of a complete winner-takes-all.
Cases of certificates of the electoral college votes confirming the results of the 2020 US election, after they had been removed from the House Chambers by congressional staff during the 2021 U.S. Capitol attack.
After the popular election in November, a state's Certificate of Ascertainment officially announces the state's electors for the Electoral College. The appointed Electoral College members later meet in the state capital in December to cast their votes.
Population per electoral vote for each state and Washington, D.C. (2010 census). By 2020 estimates, a single elector could represent more than 700,000 people or under 200,000.
When the state's electors meet in December, they cast their ballots and record their vote on a Certificate of Vote, which is then sent to the U.S. Congress. (From the election of 1876)
This cartogram shows the number of electors from each state for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 presidential elections. Following the 2010 Census, New York and Ohio lost two electoral votes, 8 states lost one, 6 states gained one, Florida gained two, and Texas gained four.
This graphic demonstrates how the winner of the popular vote can still lose in an electoral college system similar to the U.S. Electoral College.
Bar graph of popular votes in presidential elections (through 2020). Black stars mark the five cases where the winner did not have the plurality of the popular vote. Black squares mark the two cases where the electoral vote resulted in a tie, or the winner did not have the majority of electoral votes. An H marks each of two cases where the election was decided by the House; an S marks the one case where the election was finalized by the Supreme Court.
These maps show the amount of attention given to each state by the Bush and Kerry campaigns (combined) during the final five weeks of the 2004 election: each waving hand (purple map) represents a visit from a presidential or vice presidential candidate; each dollar sign (green map) represents one million dollars spent on TV advertising.
Half the U.S. population lives in 143 urban / suburban counties out of 3,143 counties or county equivalents (2019 American Community Survey)

Each state appoints electors pursuant to the methods described by its legislature, equal in number to its congressional delegation (senators and representatives).

Clerk of the United States House of Representatives

Officer of the United States House of Representatives, whose primary duty is to act as the chief record-keeper for the House.

Federal law requires the Clerk to notify each state government of the number of seats apportioned to the state no later than January 25 of the year immediately following each decennial census.

List of United States congressional districts

Congressional districts in the United States are electoral divisions for the purpose of electing members of the United States House of Representatives.

Change in apportionment of congressional districts, starting in 2023, as a result of the 2020 United States census
Change in apportionment of congressional districts, starting in 2013, as a result of the 2010 United States census
Change in apportionment of congressional districts, starting in 2003, as a result of the 2000 United States census
Alabama's congressional districts since 2013
Alaska's at-large district since 1959
Arizona's congressional districts since 2013
Arkansas's congressional districts since 2013
California's congressional districts since 2013
Colorado's congressional districts since 2013
Connecticut's congressional districts since 2013
Delaware's at-large district since 1789
Florida's congressional districts since 2017
Georgia's congressional districts since 2013
Hawaii's congressional districts since 2013
Idaho's congressional districts since 2013
Illinois's congressional districts since 2013
Iowa's congressional districts since 2013
Kansas's congressional districts since 2013
Kentucky's congressional districts since 2013
Louisiana's congressional districts since 2013
Maine's congressional districts since 2013
Maryland's congressional districts since 2013
Michigan's congressional districts since 2013
Minnesota's congressional districts since 2013
Mississippi's congressional districts since 2013
Missouri's congressional districts since 2013
Montana's at-large district since 1993
Nebraska's congressional districts since 2013
Nevada's congressional districts since 2013
New Hampshire's congressional districts since 2013
New Jersey's congressional districts since 2013
New Mexico's congressional districts since 2013
New York's congressional districts since 2013
North Dakota's at-large district since 1973
Ohio's congressional districts since 2013
Oklahoma's congressional districts since 2013
Oregon's congressional districts since 2013
Pennsylvania's congressional districts since 2018 court order
Rhode Island's congressional districts since 2013
South Carolina's congressional districts since 2013
South Dakota's at-large district since 1983
Tennessee's congressional districts since 2013
Utah's congressional districts since 2013
Vermont's at-large district since 1933
Virginia's congressional districts since 2017, as a result of the 2016 court ruling.
Washington's congressional districts since 2013
West Virginia's congressional districts since 2013
Wisconsin's congressional districts since 2013
Wyoming's at-large district since 1869

The Bureau of the Census conducts a constitutionally mandated decennial census whose figures are used to determine the number of congressional districts to which each state is entitled, in a process called "apportionment".

Webster/Sainte-Laguë method

Method for allocating seats in a parliament among federal states, or among parties in a party-list proportional representation system.

The pathway of regional integration or separation

In 1842 the method was adopted for proportional allocation of seats in United States congressional apportionment (Act of 25 June 1842, ch 46, 5 Stat.

United States House of Representatives

Lower house of the United States Congress, with the Senate being the upper house.

Representation of all political parties as percentage in House of Representatives over time
Historical graph of party control of the Senate and House as well as the presidency
Republican speaker of the House Thomas Brackett Reed (1895–1899)
All 435 voting seats of the current House shown grouped by state, largest to smallest (From 2015)
Population per U.S. representative allocated to each of the 50 states and D.C., ranked by population. Since D.C. (ranked 49th) receives no voting seats in the House, its bar is absent.

Since 1913, the number of voting representatives has been at 435 pursuant to the Apportionment Act of 1911.

United States census

Census that is legally mandated by the U.S. Constitution, and takes place every 10 years.

A woman with a Hollerith pantograph punch. The keyboard is for the 1940 U.S. census population card.
This 1940 Census publicity photo shows a census worker in Fairbanks, Alaska. The dog musher remains out of earshot to maintain confidentiality.
Census outreach flyers hang at Sure We Can - redemption center in Bushwick, Brooklyn - 2020
Census regional marketing logo in Minnesota.
US Census Bureau Population Regions

The U.S. census is mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers... . The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years".

Reapportionment Act of 1929

The Reapportionment Act of 1929 (ch.

It was not clear whether these requirements were still in effect until in 1932 the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Wood v. Broom(1932) that the provisions of each apportionment act affected only the apportionment for which they were written.

United States Census Bureau

Principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

Census headquarters in Suitland, Maryland
U.S. Census Bureau Regions and Divisions
U.S. Census Bureau Regional Office Boundaries
Census Bureau employees tabulate data using one of the agency's UNIVAC computers, c. 1960.

Article One of the United States Constitution (section II) directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787.

Independence Hall's Assembly Room
James Madison, the author of the Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
Charles Pinckney Plan
Edmund Randolph, the Governor of Virginia, introduced the Virginia Plan
James Wilson's ideas shaped the American presidency more than any other delegate
New Jersey Plan
Hamilton's Plan
Roger Sherman of Connecticut
Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania
Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy (1940)
U.S. Postage, Issue of 1937, depicting Delegates at the signing of the Constitution, engraving after a painting by Junius Brutus Stearns
Quaker John Dickinson argued forcefully against slavery during the convention. Once Delaware's largest slaveholder, he had freed all of his slaves by 1787.

Representation in both houses of Congress would be apportioned according either to quotas of contribution (a state's wealth as reflected in the taxes it paid) or the size of each state's non-slave population.

D'Hondt method

Method for allocating seats in parliaments among federal states, or in party-list proportional representation systems.

The pathway of regional integration or separation

Statesman and future US President Thomas Jefferson devised the method in 1792 for the U.S. congressional apportionment pursuant to the First United States Census.