United States dollar

Spanish silver eight-real or peso of 1768
Alexander Hamilton finalized the details of the 1792 Coinage Act and the establishment of the U.S. Mint.
Continental one third dollar bill (obverse)
Series of 1917 $1 United States Note
Gold double eagle ($20 coin), 1907
John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund in 1946. They were instrumental in drafting the provisions of the post-war global financial system.
The Headquarters of the Federal Reserve System in Washington, D.C.
U.S. Consumer Price Index, starting from 1913

Official currency of the United States and several other countries.

- United States dollar

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Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western European countries, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton Woods Agreement.

Cordell Hull, U.S. Secretary of State 1933–44
Roosevelt and Churchill during their secret meeting of 9–12 August 1941, in Newfoundland resulted in the Atlantic Charter, which the U.S. and Britain officially announced two days later.
John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund's Board of Governors in Savannah, Georgia, U.S., 8 March 1946
Gold prices (US$ per troy ounce) with a line approximately marking the collapse of Bretton Woods.

The Bretton Woods system required countries to guarantee convertibility of their currencies into U.S. dollars to within 1% of fixed parity rates, with the dollar convertible to gold bullion for foreign governments and central banks at US$35 per troy ounce of fine gold (or 0.88867 gram fine gold per dollar).

Coinage Act of 1792

In 1868, this committee of representatives prosecuted President Andrew Johnson in his impeachment trial, but the Senate did not convict him.

The Coinage Act of 1792 (also known as the Mint Act; officially: An act establishing a mint, and regulating the Coins of the United States), passed by the United States Congress on April 2, 1792, created the United States dollar as the country's standard unit of money, established the United States Mint, and regulated the coinage of the United States.

Pound sterling

Official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Gibraltar, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

The Hatter's hat shows an example of the old pre-decimal system: the hat costs half a guinea (10/6).
King Offa penny (eighth century)
Penny of Henry III, 13th century
Edward III noble (80 pence), 1354–55
Crown (5/–) of Edward VI, 1551
Guinea of James II, 1686. The "Elephant and Castle" motif below his head is that of the Royal African Company: the gold came from Britain's trade in African slaves from the Guinea region of West Africa
"Shield reverse" sovereign of Queen Victoria, 1842
The cost of £1 in US dollars (from 1990)
The cost of one Euro in sterling terms (from 1999)
Reverse of a £5 Series G Bank of England note
The British Islands (red) and overseas territories (blue) using sterling or their local issue
Selection of current sterling banknotes printed by all banks

Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro, and the Japanese yen.

Floating exchange rate

[[Image:Exchange rate arrangements map.svg|thumb|De facto exchange-rate arrangements in 2013 as classified by the [[International Monetary Fund]].

Circulation in macroeconomics.

In the modern world, most of the world's currencies are floating, and include the most widely traded currencies: the United States dollar, the euro, the Swiss franc, the Indian rupee, the pound sterling, the Japanese yen, and the Australian dollar.

ISO 4217

Published in 1978.

An airline ticket showing the price in the ISO 4217 code "EUR" (bottom left) and not the currency sign €
A list of exchange rates for various base currencies given by a money changer in Thailand, with the Thailand Baht as the counter (or quote) currency. Note the Korean currency code should be KRW.

For example, USD (United States dollar) has numeric code 840 which is also the numeric code for the US (United States).

Penny (United States coin)

A collection of Lincoln cents from 1941 to 1974. Nearly complete set in a folder. Also features two error coins.
Detail of reverse showing Lincoln statue inside the memorial
Classic Head cent, 1811
Braided Hair large cent, 1850
Flying Eagle small cent, 1858
Indian Head cent, 1859
A 1937 Wheat cent
Lincoln cent with cameo effect, obverse
Obverse side of a cent after 17 years of circulation

The cent, the United States one-cent coin (symbol: ¢), often called the "penny", is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a United States dollar.

Reserve currency

Foreign currency that is held in significant quantities by central banks or other monetary authorities as part of their foreign exchange reserves.

The US 100-dollar bill, the world's most recognizable reserve currency in physical form
Currency symbols of the four most widely held reserve currencies, L-R: United States dollar, Euro, Japanese Yen, Pound Sterling
John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White helped to draft the provisions of the post-war financial system. Here, they meet at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund, 1946.
Distribution of global reserve currencies
Florentine florin, 1347
Spanish silver dollar of Charles IV, 1776
Silver ducaton worth 3-3.15 Dutch guilders, 1793
Sovereign (£1 coin) of Queen Victoria, 1842
US double eagle ($20 gold coin), 1907

However, by the middle of the 20th century, the United States dollar had become the world's dominant reserve currency.


Standardization of money in any form, in use or circulation as a medium of exchange, for example banknotes and coins.

Cowry shells being used as money by an Arab trader.
The world's oldest coin, created in the ancient Kingdom of Lydia.
Song dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money
Name of currency units by country, in Portuguese
Strength of currencies relative to USD as of April 2016
Currencies exchange logo

Under this definition, U.S. dollars (US$), euros (€), Indian rupee (₹), Japanese yen (¥), and pounds sterling (£) are examples of (government-issued) fiat currencies.

United States Secretary of the Treasury

Head of the United States Department of the Treasury, and is the chief financial officer of the federal government of the United States.

The former flag of the U.S. secretary of the treasury, originating from the 19th century.

The secretary of the treasury is a Level I position in the Executive Schedule and thus earns the salary prescribed for that level (US$221,400, as of January 2021).

Dollar sign

Symbol consisting of a capital "S" crossed with one or two vertical strokes , used to indicate the unit of various currencies around the world, including most currencies denominated "peso" and "dollar".

A piece of eight from the Potosí mint, showing the Pillars of Hercules with "S" ribbons, and two "PTSI" monograms at about 4 and 8 o'clock around the edge.
Sample ledger with a sign for dollar from John Collins 1686.
Car for sale in Cape Verde, showing use of the cifrão as decimals separator.

Should that ambiguity be significant, one may use explicit abbreviations (like "US$" or "$NZ"), or ISO 4217 three-letter currency codes (such as USD and MXN) to distinguish different currencies that use the symbol.