University

The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation
Harvard University, founded in 1636, is the oldest university in the United States and is routinely ranked among the world's best universities
Moroccan higher-learning institution Al-Qarawiyin (founded in 859 A.D.) was transformed into a university under the supervision of the ministry of education in 1963.
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a medieval manuscript.
The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the United Kingdom and among the world's top ranked
The University of St Andrews, founded in 1410, is Scotland's oldest university and one of the UK's best ranked universities.
Old main building of the University of Basel—Switzerland's oldest university (1460). The university is among the birthplaces of Renaissance humanism
17th-century classroom at the University of Salamanca
King's College London, established by Royal Charter having been founded by King George IV and Duke of Wellington in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London.
Peking University in Beijing was founded as the Imperial University of Peking
The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.
The University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia in the United States was founded in 1819 by American founding father Thomas Jefferson

Institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in several academic disciplines.

- University
The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation

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The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild by Rembrandt, 1662.

Guild

Association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

Association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild by Rembrandt, 1662.
One of the legacies of the guilds: the elevated Windsor Guildhall originated as a meeting place for guilds, as well as a magistrates' seat and town hall.
Traditional hand forged guild sign of a glazier — in Germany. These signs can be found in many old European towns where guild members marked their places of business. Many survived through time or staged a comeback in industrial times. Today they are restored or even newly created, especially in old town areas.
Coats of arms of guilds in a town in the Czech Republic displaying symbols of various European medieval trades and crafts
The medieval Merchant Guild House in Vyborg, Russia
A center of urban government: the Guildhall, London (engraving, c. 1805)
Locksmith, 1451
The Haarlem Painter's Guild in 1675, by Jan de Bray.
An example of the last of the British Guilds meeting rooms c. 1820
Shoemakers, 1568

An important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna (established in 1088), Oxford (at least since 1096) and Paris (c.

Harvard University, an Ivy League university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, routinely ranks as the best, or one of the best, institutions of higher learning in the world.

Higher education

Tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree.

Tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree.

Harvard University, an Ivy League university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, routinely ranks as the best, or one of the best, institutions of higher learning in the world.
Deakin University, one of Australia's 43 universities
Mean financial wealth of US families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010
Mean income of US families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010
Courtyard, Al-Qarawiyyin University, Fes, Morocco
University of Bologna, located in Bologna, Italy, is the oldest university created under that name in the world.<ref>Top Universities World University Rankings Retrieved 2010-1-6</ref><ref>Our History - Università di Bologna</ref><ref>{{cite book |url =https://books.google.com/books?id=wyjnHZ1IIlgC&q=the+oldest+university+in+the+world+Bologna&pg=PA18 |title = The Challenge of Bologna |author= Paul L. Gaston |year=2010|page=18|isbn=978-1-57922-366-3 }}</ref>
Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, located in Mexico City, Mexico, was the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas<ref>{{cite book|url=https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/101392426|title=The first college in America: Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco.|location=Washington DC|year=1936|author1=Steck|author2=Francis Borgia}}</ref> and the first and oldest major school of interpreters and translators in the New World.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.openedition.org/uop/336?lang=es|title=The Imperial College of Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco|author=Lourdes Arencibia Rodriguez}}</ref>
The University of Pennsylvania considers itself the first institution in the United States of America to use the term "university" in its name.
The University of Cambridge is an institution of higher learning in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
McGill University is an institution of higher learning in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and one of two Canadian members of the Association of American Universities.
The Moscow State University is an institution of higher learning in Moscow, Russia.
The Jeffersonian architecture of Tsinghua University, an institution of higher learning in Beijing, China.
The University of Tokyo is an institution of higher learning in Tokyo, Japan.
The University of São Paulo is an institution of higher learning in São Paulo, Brazil.

In the US, higher education is provided by universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, and certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, universities of applied sciences, trade schools, and other career-based colleges that award degrees.

A teacher of a Latin school and two students, 1487

Teacher

Educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

Educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

A teacher of a Latin school and two students, 1487
A teacher interacts with older students at a school in New Zealand
A primary school teacher on a picnic with her students, Colombia, 2014
Dutch schoolmaster and children, 1662
A primary school teacher in northern Laos
The teacher-student-monument in Rostock, Germany, honors teachers
GDR "village teacher", a teacher teaching students of all age groups in one class in 1951
Jewish children with their teacher in Samarkand, the beginning of the 20th century.
Medieval schoolboy birched on the bare buttocks
Teacher and pupils in liberated Guinea-Bissau, 1974.
Math and physics teacher at a junior college in Sweden, in the 1960s
Schoolmarm, a figurine by Royal Doulton
Students of a U.S. university with their professor on the far right, 2009

In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college.

Young children in a kindergarten in Japan

Educational institution

Place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities.

Place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities.

Young children in a kindergarten in Japan

University

Monument to the protector of the university, Emperor Charles IV, in Prague (built in 1848)

Charles University

Monument to the protector of the university, Emperor Charles IV, in Prague (built in 1848)
Teacher and students shown in a medieval manuscript from Bohemia
Carolinum – the oldest building of Charles University built in the 14th century
Baroque library hall in Clementinum, which originally belonged to the university, today part of Czech National Library
Doctoral diploma of the astronomer Friedrich Hopfner, issued 1905 by the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague
The insignia of the university; bone of contention between the universities
Detail of the stolen insignia of Charles University. From left: Sceptre of the Faculty of Theology, the Faculty of Law, the sceptre of the Rector, the sceptre of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Philosophy.
Façade of the modern entrance to Carolinum, the center of Charles university
Faculty of Arts (philosophy), Charles University in Prague
Faculty of Law, Charles University in Prague

Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova (UK); Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic.

Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution: Helsinki University of Technology

Tertiary education

Educational level following the completion of secondary education.

Educational level following the completion of secondary education.

Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution: Helsinki University of Technology
Percentage of 25-29-year-olds who have completed at least four years of tertiary education, by wealth, selected countries, 2008-2014
Deakin University, one of Australia's 43 universities
The University of Pennsylvania, an American research university
Federal Polytechnic, Nekede in Owerri, Nigeria.

The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including universities as well as trade schools and colleges.

University of Paris

The Sorbonne covered by snow.
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a 16th-century miniature.
Map showing the territories covered by the four nations of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages.
Rue Saint-Jacques and the Sorbonne in Paris
The Old Sorbonne on fire in 1670.
The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th-century engraving
The Sorbonne as seen from rue des Écoles.
Victor Cousin
John Calvin
Thomas Aquinas
Denis Diderot
Antoine-Henri Becquerel
Marie Skłodowska Curie
Henri Bergson
Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean Tirole
Gabriel Lippmann
Jean Perrin
Alfred Kastler
Jules Bordet
T. S. Eliot

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was the leading university in Paris, France, active from 1150 to 1970, with the exception of 1793–1806 under the French Revolution.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde

In the West, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities.

Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris (16th-century miniature)

Academic degree

Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris (16th-century miniature)
Spanish Official University Education Legal Framework 02
Spanish Official University Education Legal Framework 01
The newly conferred bachelor's degree holders after graduation at King's College London, one of the founding colleges of the University of London

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university.

Portrait of Avicenna on an Iranian postage stamp

Avicenna

Portrait of Avicenna on an Iranian postage stamp
Map of Khurasan and Transoxiana
Coin of Majd al-Dawla ((r. 997 – 1029)), the amir (ruler) of the Buyid branch of Ray
Coin of Ala al-Dawla Muhammad ((r. 1008 – 1041)), the Kakuyid ruler of Isfahan
The Mausoleum of Avicenna, Hamadan, Iran
Canons of medicine book from Avicenna, Latin translation located at UT Health of San Antonio
Skull of Avicenna, found in 1950 during construction of the new mausoleum
Inside view of the Avicenna Mausoleum, designed by Hooshang Seyhoun in 1945–1950
A monument to Avicenna in Qakh (city), Azerbaijan
Image of Avicenna on the Tajikistani somoni
The statue of Avicenna in United Nations Office in Vienna as a part of the Persian Scholars Pavilion donated by Iran

His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650.