A report on University of Chicago

An early convocation ceremony at the University of Chicago.
Some of the University of Chicago team that worked on the production of the world's first human-caused self-sustaining nuclear reaction, including Enrico Fermi in the front row and Leó Szilárd in the second.
View from the Midway Plaisance.
View of university building from the Harper Quadrangle.
Many older buildings of the University of Chicago employ Collegiate Gothic architecture like that of the University of Oxford. For example, Chicago's Mitchell Tower (left) was modeled after Oxford's Magdalen Tower (right).
Hutchinson Commons.
The University of Chicago Main Quadrangles, looking north.
Harper Memorial Library was dedicated in 1912 and its architecture takes inspiration from various colleges in England.
Eckhart Hall houses the university's math department.
The University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, a private day school run by the university.
University of Chicago, Harper Library.
Aerial view of Fermilab, a science research laboratory co-managed by the University of Chicago.
University of Chicago building during fall.
Saieh Hall for Economics, housing the Department of Economics and the Becker Friedman Institute.
Official Athletics logo.
The university's Reynolds Club, the student center.
Max Palevsky Residential Commons, a dormitory completed in 2001 designed by postmodernist Mexican architect Ricardo Legorreta.
Qwazy Quad Rally, Scav Hunt 2005, item #38.
Physicist Enrico Fermi
Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King in 1947.
Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens
Astronomer Carl Sagan in 1980
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winner Milton Friedman in 2004.
The archway between Bond Chapel and Swift Hall, home of the university's Divinity School
Snell-Hitchcock, an undergraduate dormitory constructed in the early 20th century, is part of the Main Quadrangles.
Rockefeller Chapel, constructed in 1928, was designed by Bertram Goodhue in the neo-Gothic style.
The Henry Hinds Laboratory for Geophysical Sciences was built in 1969.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://photofiles.lib.uchicago.edu/db.xqy?one=apf2-03501.xml|title=Henry Hinds Laboratory Architect's Drawings|publisher=University of Chicago Archival Photographic Files|access-date=September 10, 2009|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100617140204/http://photofiles.lib.uchicago.edu/db.xqy?one=apf2-03501.xml|archive-date=June 17, 2010|url-status=live}}</ref>
The Gerald Ratner Athletics Center, opened in 2003 and designed by Cesar Pelli, houses the volleyball, wrestling, swimming, and basketball teams.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://athletics.uchicago.edu/facilities/ratner-overview.htm|title=Overview|publisher=The University of Chicago|access-date=October 10, 2009 |archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20080616150245/http://athletics.uchicago.edu/facilities/ratner-overview.htm |archive-date = June 16, 2008}}</ref>

Private research university in Chicago, Illinois.

- University of Chicago

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University of Chicago Law School

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View of the University of Chicago from the Midway Plaisance
President Theodore Roosevelt laying the cornerstone for the law school on April 2, 1903, after receiving the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws
The law school, depicted in a postcard from the 1910s
Nobel laureate Ronald Coase taught at the law school from 1964 to 2013
Laird Bell Quadrangle fountain in front of the D'Angelo Law Library.
The Laird Bell Quadrangle. Eero Saarinen designed the present law school building, opened 1959.

The University of Chicago Law School is the law school of the University of Chicago, a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.

Hyde Park, Chicago

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41st of the 77 community areas of Chicago.

41st of the 77 community areas of Chicago.

Engraving of the Hyde Park Water Works, 1882
In 1893, the World's Columbian Exposition was held in Hyde Park and Woodlawn.
The southwestern part of Hyde Park serves as the campus of the University of Chicago
Looking east along South Shore Drive near 55th St. in Hyde Park (aka East Hyde Park)
U.S. President Barack Obama has lived near Hyde Park for more than twenty years.
Nuclear Energy, a sculpture by Henry Moore marking the site of Chicago Pile-1, the world's first nuclear reactor.
A trail in Jackson Park
The courtyard of the Hyde Park Shopping Center
The University of Chicago as seen from the Midway Plaisance, a wide boulevard connecting Jackson Park and Washington Park.
The Robie House, a National Historic Landmark designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1908.
The Rockefeller Chapel, located on the University of Chicago campus and named after University of Chicago founder John D. Rockefeller.
The University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, founded by the prominent educational reformer John Dewey in 1896.
The Hampton House, a condominium located on the property that once housed the Hyde Park House (Hyde Park's first hotel). In the 1980s, the Hampton House was home to Chicago Mayor Harold Washington.
Shops and restaurants on 53rd Street.
A monument marking the location of the first kiss between Barack Obama and Michelle Obama, located on the corner of 53rd Street and Dorchester Avenue.
Osaka Garden, a Japanese garden in Jackson Park.
The banks of Promontory Point.
Downtown Chicago and lakefront condominiums in Hyde Park as seen from the northern side of Promontory Point.

Hyde Park is home to a number of institutions of higher education; among these are the University of Chicago, Catholic Theological Union, Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, and McCormick Theological Seminary.

Chicago

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Most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois, and the third-most populous city in the United States, following New York City and Los Angeles.

Most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois, and the third-most populous city in the United States, following New York City and Los Angeles.

Traditional Potawatomi regalia on display at the Field Museum of Natural History
An artist's rendering of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871
Court of Honor at the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893
Men outside a soup kitchen during the Great Depression (1931)
Boy from Chicago, 1941
Protesters in Grant Park outside the 1968 Democratic National Convention
Downtown and the North Side with beaches lining the waterfront
A satellite image of Chicago
Community areas of the City of Chicago
The Chicago Building (1904–05) is a prime example of the Chicago School, displaying both variations of the Chicago window.
Replica of Daniel Chester French's Statue of the Republic at the site of the World's Columbian Exposition
Downtown Chicago and the Chicago River during January 2014 cold wave
Map of racial distribution in Chicago, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
The Chicago Board of Trade Building
The National Hellenic Museum in Greektown is one of several ethnic museums comprising the Chicago Cultural Alliance.
A Chicago jazz club
The Chicago Theatre
The spire of the Copernicus Center is modeled on the Royal Castle in Warsaw.
Jay Pritzker Pavilion by night
Ferries offer sightseeing tours and water-taxi transportation along the Chicago River and Lake Michigan.
Aerial view of Navy Pier at night
The Magnificent Mile hosts numerous upscale stores, as well as landmarks like the Chicago Water Tower.
Chicago-style stuffed pizza
A Polish market in Chicago
Carl Sandburg's most famous description of the city is as "Hog Butcher for the World/Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat/ Player with Railroads and the Nation's Freight Handler,/ Stormy, Husky, Brawling, City of the Big Shoulders."
Chicago Half Marathon on Lake Shore Drive on the South Side
Daley Plaza with Picasso statue, City Hall in background. At right, the Daley Plaza Building contains the state law courts.
Chicago Police Department SUV, 2011
When it was opened in 1991, the central Harold Washington Library appeared in Guinness World Records as the largest municipal public library building in the world.
The University of Chicago, as seen from the Midway Plaisance
WGN began in the early days of radio and developed into a multi-platform broadcaster, including a cable television super-station.
The former Harpo Studios in West Loop, Chicago was home of The Oprah Winfrey Show from 1986 until 2011 and other Harpo Production operations until 2015.
Aerial photo of the Jane Byrne Interchange, opened in the 1960s
Chicago Union Station, opened in 1925, is the third-busiest passenger rail terminal in the United States.
Amtrak train on the Empire Builder route departs Chicago from Union Station
O'Hare International Airport
Prentice Women's Hospital on the Northwestern Memorial Hospital Downtown Campus

Of the area's colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities.

Fermi in 1943

Enrico Fermi

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Italian (later naturalized American) physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

Italian (later naturalized American) physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

Fermi in 1943
Fermi was born in Rome at Via Gaeta 19.
Plaque at Fermi's birthplace
Enrico Fermi as a student in Pisa
A light cone is a three-dimensional surface of all possible light rays arriving at and departing from a point in spacetime. Here, it is depicted with one spatial dimension suppressed. The timeline is the vertical axis.
Fermi and his research group (the Via Panisperna boys) in the courtyard of Rome University's Physics Institute in Via Panisperna, c. undefined 1934. From left to right: Oscar D'Agostino, Emilio Segrè, Edoardo Amaldi, Franco Rasetti and Fermi
Enrico Fermi between Franco Rasetti (left) and Emilio Segrè in academic dress
Beta decay. A neutron decays into a proton, and an electron is emitted. In order for the total energy in the system to remain the same, Pauli and Fermi postulated that a neutrino (\bar{\nu}_e) was also emitted.
Diagram of Chicago Pile-1, the first nuclear reactor to achieve a self-sustaining chain reaction. Designed by Fermi, it consisted of uranium and uranium oxide in a cubic lattice embedded in graphite.
Fermi's ID photo from Los Alamos
Ernest O. Lawrence, Fermi, and Isidor Isaac Rabi
The FERMIAC, an analog computer invented by Fermi to study neutron transport
Laura and Enrico Fermi at the Institute for Nuclear Studies, Los Alamos, 1954
Fermi's grave in Chicago
The sign at Enrico Fermi Street in Rome
Memorial plaque in the Basilica Santa Croce, Florence. Italy

Fermi led the team at the University of Chicago that designed and built Chicago Pile-1, which went critical on 2 December 1942, demonstrating the first human-created, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.

The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project on 16 July 1945 was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.

Manhattan Project

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Research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

Research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project on 16 July 1945 was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Enrico Fermi, John R. Dunning, and Dana P. Mitchell in front of the cyclotron in the basement of Pupin Hall at Columbia University
March 1940 meeting at Berkeley, California: Ernest O. Lawrence, Arthur H. Compton, Vannevar Bush, James B. Conant, Karl T. Compton, and Alfred L. Loomis
Different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the July 1942 conference
Manhattan Project Organization Chart, 1 May 1946
Oppenheimer and Groves at the remains of the Trinity test in September 1945, two months after the test blast and just after the end of World War II. The white overshoes prevented fallout from sticking to the soles of their shoes.
Groves confers with James Chadwick, the head of the British Mission.
Shift change at the Y-12 uranium enrichment facility at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on 11 August 1945. By May 1945, 82,000 people were employed at the Clinton Engineer Works. Photograph by the Manhattan District photographer Ed Westcott.
Physicists at a Manhattan District-sponsored colloquium at the Los Alamos Laboratory on the Super in April 1946. In the front row are Norris Bradbury, John Manley, Enrico Fermi and J. (Jerome) M. B. Kellogg (1905-1981). Robert Oppenheimer, in dark coat, is behind Manley; to Oppenheimer's left is Richard Feynman. The Army officer on the left is Colonel Oliver Haywood.
Map of Los Alamos site, New Mexico, 1943–45
Hanford workers collect their paychecks at the Western Union office.
The majority of the uranium used in the Manhattan Project came from the Shinkolobwe mine in Belgian Congo.
Oak Ridge hosted several uranium separation technologies. The Y-12 electromagnetic separation plant is in the upper right. The K-25 and K-27 gaseous diffusion plants are in the lower left, near the S-50 thermal diffusion plant. The X-10 was for plutonium production.
Alpha I racetrack at Y-12
Calutron Girls were young women who monitored calutron control panels at Y-12. Gladys Owens, seated in the foreground, was unaware of what she had been involved in.
Oak Ridge K-25 plant
The S-50 plant is the dark building to the upper left behind the Oak Ridge powerhouse (with smoke stacks).
Workers load uranium slugs into the X-10 Graphite Reactor.
Aerial view of Hanford B-Reactor site, June 1944
Map of the Hanford Site. Railroads flank the plants to the north and south. Reactors are the three northernmost red squares, along the Columbia River. The separation plants are the lower two red squares from the grouping south of the reactors. The bottom red square is the 300 area.
A row of Thin Man casings. Fat Man casings are visible in the background.
An implosion-type nuclear bomb
Remote handling of a kilocurie source of radiolanthanum for a RaLa Experiment at Los Alamos
The explosives of "the gadget" were raised to the top of the tower for the final assembly.
The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Major General Leslie R. Groves, Jr., speaks to service personnel Oak Ridge Tennessee in August 1945.
A billboard encouraging secrecy among Oak Ridge workers
Security poster, warning office workers to close drawers and put documents in safes when not being used
Allied soldiers dismantle the German experimental nuclear reactor at Haigerloch.
Silverplate B-29 Straight Flush. The tail code of the 444th Bombardment Group is painted on for security reasons.
Little Boy explodes over Hiroshima, Japan, 6 August 1945 (left);
Fat Man explodes over Nagasaki, Japan, 9 August 1945 (right).
Presentation of the Army–Navy "E" Award at Los Alamos on 16 October 1945. Standing, left to right: J. Robert Oppenheimer, unidentified, unidentified, Kenneth Nichols, Leslie Groves, Robert Gordon Sproul, William Sterling Parsons.
President Harry S. Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, establishing the United States Atomic Energy Commission.
The Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW) near Niagara Falls became a principal repository for Manhattan Project waste for the Eastern United States. All of the radioactive materials stored at the LOOW site—including thorium, uranium, and the world's largest concentration of radium-226—were buried in an "Interim Waste Containment Structure" (in the foreground) in 1991.
A "bomb" (pressure vessel) containing uranium halide and sacrificial metal, probably magnesium, being lowered into a furnace
After the reaction, the interior of a bomb coated with remnant slag
A uranium metal "biscuit" from the reduction reaction

After the feasibility of the world's first artificial nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1, was demonstrated in 1942 at the Metallurgical Laboratory in the University of Chicago, the Project designed the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge and the production reactors at the Hanford Site in Washington state, in which uranium was irradiated and transmuted into plutonium.

Eckhart Hall at the University of Chicago was used for the Metallurgical Project's administrative offices

Metallurgical Laboratory

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Eckhart Hall at the University of Chicago was used for the Metallurgical Project's administrative offices
Eckhart Hall at the University of Chicago was used for the Metallurgical Project's administrative offices
Arthur H. Compton (left) the head of the Metallurgical Project, with Martin D. Whitaker, the director of Clinton Laboratories
Argonne Laboratory at "Site A"
Stagg Field at the University of Chicago. The stadium was razed in 1957.
Chicago Pile-3
New Chemistry Building on the University of Chicago campus. The Gothic tower of Stagg Field is barely visible in the left background.
Laboratory at the New Chemistry Building at the University of Chicago
The 124th Field Artillery Armory site in 2006

The Metallurgical Laboratory (or Met Lab) was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element plutonium.

Chicago Pile-1

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The world's first artificial nuclear reactor.

The world's first artificial nuclear reactor.

Pupin Hall at Columbia University
On the fourth anniversary of the team's success, 2 December 1946, members of the CP-1 team gathered at the University of Chicago. Back row, from left: Norman Hilberry, Samuel Allison, Thomas Brill, Robert Nobles, Warren Nyer, and Marvin Wilkening. Middle row: Harold Agnew, William Sturm, Harold Lichtenberger, Leona Woods and Leo Szilard. Front row: Enrico Fermi, Walter Zinn, Albert Wattenberg and Herbert L. Anderson.
One of at least 29 experimental piles that were constructed in 1942 under the West Stands of Stagg Field. Each tested elements incorporated into the final design.
Carpenter Augustus Knuth, in the process of jointing a wooden block for the timber frame
CP-1 under construction: 4th layer
CP-1 under construction: 7th layer
CP-1 under construction: 10th layer
The Chianti fiasco purchased by Eugene Wigner to help celebrate the first self-sustaining, controlled chain reaction. It was signed by the participants.
Commemorative boulder at Site A
Leo Szilard (right) and Norman Hilberry under the plaque commemorating Chicago Pile-1 on the West Stands of Old Stagg Field. While the stands were later demolished, the plaque is now located at the site memorial.

Developed by the Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago, CP-1 was built under the west viewing stands of the original Stagg Field.

Met Lab scientists Leó Szilárd (right) and Norman Hilberry under a plaque commemorating CP-1 on the West Stands of Old Stagg Field

Stagg Field

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Met Lab scientists Leó Szilárd (right) and Norman Hilberry under a plaque commemorating CP-1 on the West Stands of Old Stagg Field
Stagg Field (then called Marshall Field) c.1900 before the construction of the permanent stadium seating. Note: Bartlett Gymnasium has not been erected at the time of this photo.
Stagg Field in 2013

Amos Alonzo Stagg Field is the name of two successive football fields for the University of Chicago.

Friedman in 2004

Milton Friedman

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American economist and statistician who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the complexity of stabilization policy.

American economist and statistician who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the complexity of stabilization policy.

Friedman in 2004
Jenő Saul Friedman, Milton Friedman's father
Milton Friedman and future wife Rose Friedman in 1935
The NBER, where Friedman worked, starting in 1937
The University of Chicago, where Friedman taught
A model of the Permanent Income Hypothesis
Milton Friedman with his wife Rose
Long-Run Phillips Curve (NAIRU)
Former Chair of the Federal Reserve, Paul Volcker
Friedman with Richard Nixon and George Shultz in 1971
Friedman receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Ronald Reagan in 1988
Friedman in 1976
Friedman and Hayek in Hong Kong at the annual Mont Pelerin meeting in 1978
Milton Friedman receiving his Nobel Prize

With George Stigler and others, Friedman was among the intellectual leaders of the Chicago school of economics, a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago that rejected Keynesianism in favor of monetarism until the mid-1970s, when it turned to new classical macroeconomics heavily based on the concept of rational expectations.

UChicago Booth School of Business interior

University of Chicago Booth School of Business

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UChicago Booth School of Business interior

The University of Chicago Booth School of Business (Chicago Booth or Booth) is the graduate business school of the University of Chicago.