Unix

Unix System III running on a PDP-11 simulator
Unix System III running on a PDP-11 simulator
Version 7 Unix, the Research Unix ancestor of all modern Unix systems
Ken Thompson (sitting) and Dennis Ritchie working together at a PDP-11
The Common Desktop Environment (CDE), part of the COSE initiative
Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie, principal developers of Research Unix
Photo from USENIX 1984, including Dennis Ritchie (center)
Plan 9 from Bell Labs extends Unix design principles and was developed as a successor to Unix.
Promotional license plate by Digital Equipment Corporation
HP9000 workstation running HP-UX, a certified Unix operating system

Family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, whose development started in 1969 at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

- Unix
Unix System III running on a PDP-11 simulator

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Interactive Multiuser Multitouch

Multi-user software

Computer software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.

Computer software that allows access by multiple users of a computer.

Interactive Multiuser Multitouch

An example is a Unix or Unix-like system where multiple remote users have access (such as via a serial port or Secure Shell) to the Unix shell prompt at the same time.

HP-UX

HP Superdome running HP-UX 11.23 OS
HP 9000/425 workstation running HP-UX 9 with HP-VUE
The HP 9000-B180L workstation running HP-UX 10.20 with CDE
HP C8000 workstation running HP-UX 11i

HP-UX (from "Hewlett Packard Unix") is Hewlett Packard Enterprise's proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on Unix System V (initially System III) and first released in 1984.

SunOS 4.1.1 tape

SunOS

SunOS 4.1.1 tape

SunOS is a Unix-branded operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstation and server computer systems.

IBM AIX

IBM RS/6000 AIX file servers used for ibm.com in the 1990s
AIX Version 4 console login prompt
Old logo
AIX PS/2 1.3 console login
AIX PS/2 1.3 AIXwindows Desktop
AIX RS/6000 servers running ibm.com in early 1998
AIX RS/6000 servers running ibm.com in early 1998
The default login banner for AIX 5.3 on PowerPC
The Common Desktop Environment, AIX's default graphical user interface
The initial menu, when running in text mode

AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, pronounced, “ay-eye-ex”) is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms.

Xenix under Bochs

Xenix

Xenix under Bochs
IBM/Microsoft XENIX 1.00 on 5¼-inch floppy disk

Xenix is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system for various microcomputer platforms, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T Corporation in the late 1970s.

Sun Microsystems

American technology company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), VirtualBox, and SPARC microprocessors.

American technology company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), VirtualBox, and SPARC microprocessors.

Aerial photograph of the Sun headquarters campus in Santa Clara, California
Buildings 21 and 22 at Sun's headquarters campus in Santa Clara
Sun in Markham, Ontario, Canada
Sun server racks at Seneca College (York Campus)
Sun Microsystems at the Computer Museum of America in Roswell, Georgia
SPARCstation 1+
VirtualBox, purchased by Sun
A fountain within the Sun main campus in Santa Clara
Logo used on hardware products by Oracle

Sun contributed significantly to the evolution of several key computing technologies, among them Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing, and virtualized computing.

Modern desktop operating systems are capable of handling large numbers of different processes at the same time. This screenshot shows Linux Mint running simultaneously Xfce desktop environment, Firefox, a calculator program, the built-in calendar, Vim, GIMP, and VLC media player.

Computer multitasking

Concurrent execution of multiple tasks over a certain period of time.

Concurrent execution of multiple tasks over a certain period of time.

Modern desktop operating systems are capable of handling large numbers of different processes at the same time. This screenshot shows Linux Mint running simultaneously Xfce desktop environment, Firefox, a calculator program, the built-in calendar, Vim, GIMP, and VLC media player.
Multitasking of Microsoft Windows 1.01 released in 1985, here shown running the MS-DOS Executive and Calculator programs

Preemptive multitasking was implemented in the PDP-6 Monitor and MULTICS in 1964, in OS/360 MFT in 1967, and in Unix in 1969, and was available in some operating systems for computers as small as DEC's PDP-8; it is a core feature of all Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD with its derivatives, as well as modern versions of Windows.

Area of application of open source software.

The Open Group

Global consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications."

Global consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications."

Area of application of open source software.

The Open Group is the certifying body for the UNIX trademark, and publishes the Single UNIX Specification technical standard, which extends the POSIX standards.

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952

Single UNIX Specification

A human computer, with microscope and calculator, 1952

The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems, compliance with which is required to qualify for using the "UNIX" trademark.

C (programming language)

General-purpose computer programming language.

General-purpose computer programming language.

Dennis Ritchie (right), the inventor of the C programming language, with Ken Thompson
The cover of the book The C Programming Language, first edition, by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie
"Hello, World!" program by Brian Kernighan (1978)
The C Programming Language
The TIOBE index graph, showing a comparison of the popularity of various programming languages

A successor to the programming language B, C was originally developed at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie between 1972 and 1973 to construct utilities running on Unix.