Unto This Last

Unto This Last is an essay and book on economy by John Ruskin, first published between August and December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in four articles.wikipedia
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John Ruskin

RuskinRuskinianRuskinian Gothic
Unto This Last is an essay and book on economy by John Ruskin, first published between August and December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in four articles.
Unto This Last (1860, 1862) marked the shift in emphasis.

The Cornhill Magazine

Cornhill MagazineCornhillThe Cornhill
Unto This Last is an essay and book on economy by John Ruskin, first published between August and December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in four articles.

Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard

Workers in the VineyardLabourers in the VineyardThe Workers in the Vineyard
The title is a quotation from the Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard:
An example is John Ruskin, who quotes the parable in the title of his book Unto This Last.

Mahatma Gandhi

GandhiMohandas GandhiMohandas Karamchand Gandhi
The book greatly influenced the nonviolent activist Mohandas Gandhi.
His other autobiographies included: Satyagraha in South Africa about his struggle there, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, a political pamphlet, and a paraphrase in Gujarati of John Ruskin's Unto This Last.

Sarvodaya

Sarvodaya Movement
Mohandas Gandhi translated Unto This Last into Gujarati in 1908 under the title of Sarvodaya (Well Being of All).
The term was used by Mahatma Gandhi as the title of his 1908 translation of John Ruskin's tract on political economy, Unto This Last, and Gandhi came to use the term for the ideal of his own political philosophy.

Illth

* Illth
Whence it appears that many of the persons commonly considered wealthy, are in reality no more wealthy than the locks of their own strong boxes are, they being inherently and eternally incapable of wealth; and operating for the nation, in an economical point of view, either as pools of dead water, and eddies in a stream (which, so long as the stream flows, are useless, or serve only to drown people, but may become of importance in a state of stagnation should the stream dry); or else, as dams in a river, of which the ultimate service depends not on the dam, but the miller; or else, as mere accidental stays and impediments, acting not as wealth, but (for we ought to have a correspondent term) as "illth" causing various devastation and trouble around them in all directions; or lastly, act not at all, but are merely animated conditions of delay, (no use being possible of anything they have until they are dead,) in which last condition they are nevertheless often useful as delays, and 'impedimenta,' (Unto This Last, 1860)

Economy

economiceconomiesnational economy
Unto This Last is an essay and book on economy by John Ruskin, first published between August and December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in four articles.

Nonviolence

nonviolentnon-violencenon-violent
The book greatly influenced the nonviolent activist Mohandas Gandhi.

Living wage

fair wagebasic wagefair wages
Rather than discuss the contemporary religious interpretation of the parable, whereby the eleventh hour labourers would be death-bed converts, or the peoples of the world who come late to religion, Ruskin looks at the social and economic implications, discussing issues such as who should receive a living wage.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
This essay is very critical of capitalist economists of the 18th and 19th centuries.

Social economy

social-economicsocial economistsocial economic
In this sense, Ruskin is a precursor of social economy.

Green politics

greengreen movementGreens
Because the essay also attacks the destructive effects of industrialism upon the natural world, some historians have seen it as anticipating the Green movement.

Vegetarianism

vegetarianvegetariansvegetarian diet
He discovered the book in March 1904 through Henry Polak, whom he had met in a vegetarian restaurant in South Africa.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
He discovered the book in March 1904 through Henry Polak, whom he had met in a vegetarian restaurant in South Africa.

Johannesburg

Johannesburg, South AfricaJohannesburg, GautengJohannesburg WCT
Polak was sub-editor of the Johannesburg paper The Critic.

Indian Opinion

Gandhi decided immediately not only to change his own life according to Ruskin's teaching, but also to publish his own newspaper, Indian Opinion, from a farm where everybody would get the same salary, without distinction of function, race, or nationality.

Gujarati language

GujaratiGujratiGujarati-language
Mohandas Gandhi translated Unto This Last into Gujarati in 1908 under the title of Sarvodaya (Well Being of All).

Christian socialism

Christian socialistChristian socialistsSocial Christianity
Other earlier figures are also viewed as Christian socialists, such as the nineteenth century writers Frederick Denison Maurice (The Kingdom of Christ, 1838), John Ruskin (Unto This Last, 1862), Charles Kingsley (The Water-Babies, 1863), Thomas Hughes (Tom Brown's Schooldays, 1857), Frederick James Furnivall (co-creator of the Oxford English Dictionary), Adin Ballou (Practical Christian Socialism, 1854), and Francis Bellamy (a Baptist minister and the author of the United States' Pledge of Allegiance).

Gandhism

GandhianGandhian philosophyGandhian principles
One key source of this concept was John Ruskin's Unto This Last in which Ruskin critiques the 'economic man' (this was written after Ruskin's retreat from Art criticism for which he was well-known).

Guild of St George

Guild of St. GeorgeMuseum of St. GeorgeSt George's Museum
His highly influential critique of Victorian political economy, Unto This Last, was serialised in 1860, and published with an additional preface in book-form in 1862.

Denmark Hill

Champion Hilla leafy south London suburbDenmark
The preface to his work Unto This Last is dated "Denmark Hill, 10th May, 1862".

The Story of My Experiments with Truth

autobiographyMy Autobiography, Or The Story Of My Experiments With TruthMy Experiments With Truth
At round same time, Gandhi read John Ruskin's book Unto This Last, which maintained that the life of manual labor was superior to all other ways of living.

Value (economics)

valueeconomic valuemonetary value
He entitled the volume Unto This Last, and his central point was this: "It is impossible to conclude, of any given mass of acquired wealth, merely by the fact of its existence, whether it signifies good or evil to the nation in the midst of which it exists. Its real value depends on the moral sign attached to it, just as strictly as that of a mathematical quantity depends on the algebraic sign attached to it. Any given accumulation of commercial wealth may be indicative, on the one hand, of faithful industries, progressive energies, and productive ingenuities: or, on the other, it may be indicative of mortal luxury, merciless tyranny, ruinous chicanery."