A report on Upāli

Upāli, Bodh Gaya, India
Upāli, Bodh Gaya, India
Remains at Tilaurakot, one of the two sites that may have been Kapilavatthu
Upāli, woodblock print by Munakata Shikō, originally from 1939
The First Council. Mural painting in the Nava Jetavana temple, Jetavana Park, Uttar Pradesh, India, late 20th century
1890 map showing the historical location of the Mahāvihāra, drawn by a British civil servant
The Chinese Vinaya school founded by Tao-hsüan saw themselves as the continuation of Upāli's lineage (ICP, Nara National Museum)

Monk, one of the ten chief disciples of the Buddha and, according to early Buddhist texts, the person in charge of the reciting and reviewing of monastic discipline (Pāli and vinaya) on the First Buddhist Council.

- Upāli
Upāli, Bodh Gaya, India

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Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.

Gautama Buddha

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Ascetic and spiritual teacher of South Asia who lived during the latter half of the first millennium BCE.

Ascetic and spiritual teacher of South Asia who lived during the latter half of the first millennium BCE.

Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.
Seated Buddha from Tapa Shotor monastery in Hadda, Afghanistan, 2nd century CE
Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (c. 500 BCE)
Inscription "The illumination of the Blessed Sakamuni" (Brahmi script: 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁄 𑀲𑀓𑀫𑀼𑀦𑀺𑀦𑁄 𑀩𑁄𑀥𑁄, Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho) on a relief showing the "empty" Illumination Throne of the Buddha in the early Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya. Bharhut, c. 100 BCE.
One of the earliest anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha, here surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right). Bimaran Casket, mid-1st century CE, British Museum.
Māyā miraculously giving birth to Siddhārtha. Sanskrit, palm-leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period
The legendary Jataka collections depict the Buddha-to-be in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara, making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood.
Map showing Lumbini and other major Buddhist sites in India. Lumbini (present-day Nepal), is the birthplace of the Buddha, and is a holy place also for many non-Buddhists.
The Lumbini pillar contains an inscription stating that this is the Buddha's birthplace
The "Great Departure" of Siddhartha Gautama, surrounded by a halo, he is accompanied by numerous guards and devata who have come to pay homage; Gandhara, Kushan period
Prince Siddhartha shaves his hair and becomes a sramana. Borobudur, 8th century
The gilded "Emaciated Buddha statue" in Wat Suthat in Bangkok representing the stage of his asceticism
The Mahabodhi Tree at the Sri Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya
The Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha at Bodh Gaya, as recreated by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE.
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the River Nairañjanā. The Buddha is not visible (aniconism), only represented by a path on the water, and his empty throne bottom right. Sanchi.
Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, site of the first teaching of the Buddha in which he taught the Four Noble Truths to his first five disciples
The chief disciples of the Buddha, Mogallana (chief in psychic power) and Sariputta (chief in wisdom).
The remains of a section of Jetavana Monastery, just outside of ancient Savatthi, in Uttar Pradesh.
Mahāprajāpatī, the first bhikkuni and Buddha's stepmother, ordains
This East Javanese relief depicts the Buddha in his final days, and Ānanda, his chief attendant.
Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara, 3rd or 4th century CE, gray schist
Mahaparinibbana scene, from the Ajanta caves
Buddha's cremation stupa, Kushinagar (Kushinara).
Piprahwa vase with relics of the Buddha. The inscription reads: ...salilanidhane Budhasa Bhagavate... (Brahmi script: ...𑀲𑀮𑀺𑀮𑀦𑀺𑀥𑀸𑀦𑁂 𑀩𑀼𑀥𑀲 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁂...) "Relics of the Buddha Lord".
The Bodhisattva meets with Alara Kalama, Borobudur relief.
Gandharan Buddhist birchbark scroll fragments
Buddha meets a Brahmin, at the Indian Museum, Kolkata
Schist Buddha statue with the famed Ye Dharma Hetu dhāraṇī around the head, which was used as a common summary of Dependent Origination. It states: "Of those experiences that arise from a cause, The Tathāgata has said: 'this is their cause, And this is their cessation': This is what the Great Śramaṇa teaches."
Gandharan sculpture depicting the Buddha in the full lotus seated meditation posture, 2nd-3rd century CE
Buddha Statues from Gal Vihara. The Early Buddhist texts also mention meditation practice while standing and lying down.
The Buddha on a coin of Kushan ruler Kanishka I, c. 130 CE.
Buddhist monks from Nepal. According to the earliest sources, the Buddha looked like a typical shaved man from northeast India.
Buddha depicted as the 9th avatar of god Vishnu in a traditional Hindu representation
Christ and Buddha by Paul Ranson, 1880
A Royal Couple Visits the Buddha, from railing of the Bharhut Stupa, Shunga dynasty, early 2nd century BC.
Adoration of the Diamond Throne and the Bodhi Tree, Bharhut.
Descent of the Buddha from the Trayastrimsa Heaven, Sanchi Stupa No. 1.
The Buddha's Miracle at Kapilavastu, Sanchi Stupa 1.
Bimbisara visiting the Buddha (represented as empty throne) at the Bamboo garden in Rajagriha
The great departure with riderless horse, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
The Assault of Mara, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
Isapur Buddha, one of the earliest physical depictions of the Buddha, c. 15 CE.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Quintanilla |first1=Sonya Rhie |title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE – 100 CE |date=2007 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=9789004155374 |pages=199–206, 204 for the exact date |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA204}}</ref> Art of Mathura
The Buddha attended by Indra at Indrasala Cave, Mathura 50-100 CE.
Buddha Preaching in Tushita Heaven. Amaravati, Satavahana period, 2d century CE. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara.
Gandharan Buddha with Vajrapani-Herakles.
Kushan period Buddha Triad.
Buddha statue from Sanchi.
Birth of the Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nd to early 3rd century CE.
The Infant Buddha Taking A Bath, Gandhara 2nd century CE.
6th century Gandharan Buddha.
Buddha at Cave No. 6, Ajanta Caves.
Standing Buddha, c. 5th Century CE.
Sarnath standing Buddha, 5th century CE.
Seated Buddha, Gupta period.
Seated Buddha at Gal Vihara, Sri Lanka.
Chinese Stele with Sakyamuni and Bodhisattvas, Wei period, 536 CE.
The Shakyamuni Daibutsu Bronze, c. 609, Nara, Japan.
Amaravati style Buddha of Srivijaya period, Palembang, Indonesia, 7th century.
Korean Seokguram Cave Buddha, c. 774 CE.
Seated Buddha Vairocana flanked by Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani of Mendut temple, Central Java, Indonesia, early 9th century.
Buddha in the exposed stupa of Borobudur mandala, Central Java, Indonesia, c. 825.
Vairocana Buddha of Srivijaya style, Southern Thailand, 9th century.
Seated Buddha, Japan, Heian period, 9th-10th century.
Attack of Mara, 10th century, Dunhuang.
Cambodian Buddha with Mucalinda Nāga, c. 1100 CE, Banteay Chhmar, Cambodia
15th century Sukhothai Buddha.
15th century Sukhothai Walking Buddha.
Sakyamuni, Lao Tzu, and Confucius, c. from 1368 until 1644.
Chinese depiction of Shakyamuni, 1600.
Shakyamuni Buddha with Avadana Legend Scenes, Tibetan, 19th century
Golden Thai Buddha statue, Bodh Gaya.
Gautama statue, Shanyuan Temple, Liaoning Province, China.
Burmese style Buddha, Shwedagon pagoda, Yangon.
Large Gautama Buddha statue in Buddha Park of Ravangla.

Over time, other Shakyans joined the order as bhikkhus, such as Buddha's cousin Ananda, Anuruddha, Upali the barber, the Buddha's half-brother Nanda and Devadatta.

First Buddhist Council (around the 5th century BC) at Rajagaha, the current Rajgir, Nava Jetavana Park, Shravasti, Uttar Pradesh. Photograph of murals in the Nava Jetavana temple.

First Buddhist council

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Gathering of senior monks of the Buddhist order convened just after Gautama Buddha's death, which according to Buddhist tradition was c. 483 BCE, though most modern scholars place it around 400 BCE.

Gathering of senior monks of the Buddhist order convened just after Gautama Buddha's death, which according to Buddhist tradition was c. 483 BCE, though most modern scholars place it around 400 BCE.

First Buddhist Council (around the 5th century BC) at Rajagaha, the current Rajgir, Nava Jetavana Park, Shravasti, Uttar Pradesh. Photograph of murals in the Nava Jetavana temple.

The monk Upali (Sanskrit उपालि upāli) recited the Vinaya.

Mahākāśyapa (left) meets an ājīvika ascetic (right) and learns of the parinirvāna of the Buddha, Gandhāran sculpture. c. undefined 2nd–3rd century CE.

Mahākāśyapa

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One of the principal disciples of Gautama Buddha.

One of the principal disciples of Gautama Buddha.

Mahākāśyapa (left) meets an ājīvika ascetic (right) and learns of the parinirvāna of the Buddha, Gandhāran sculpture. c. undefined 2nd–3rd century CE.
Mahākāśyapa (left) meets an ājīvika ascetic (right) and learns of the parinirvāna of the Buddha, Gandhāran sculpture. c. undefined 2nd–3rd century CE.
Pippala Cave in Rajgir, where Mahākāśyapa is recorded to have stayed.
A young Mahākāśyapa, wood, eighteenth century, Korea
Mahakasyapa in the Kizil Caves, carbon dated to 422-529 CE.
Mahākāśyapa. Seventh-eighth century, Mogao Caves, China
Burma, mid 19th century. Mahākassapa meeting the ājīvika ascetic (above) and paying homage to the Buddha's feet before the funeral pyre is lit (below)
Mahākāśyapa, Tham Khao Rup Chang Temple, Songkhla Province, Thailand
Mahākāśyapa sitting, holding a staff (missing). Wood, China, c. undefined 1000
Mahākāśyapa (left) and Ānanda (right), China, Song Dynasty (960–1279)
Mahākāśyapa holding a reliquary, sixth century, Hebei province, China
Painting of an image with Maitreya and Mahākāśyapa offering him Gautama Buddha's robe. Kasagidera Temple, Kasagi, Kyoto. The original eight-century colossal cliff-face image depicted here was destroyed by fire at an uncertain date.
Image of Maitreya, Tibet, 10th century. identifies the image at the right with Mahākāśyapa.
Mahākāśyapa, woodblock print by Munakata Shiko, Japan, 1939
Mahākāśyapa smiling at the lotus flower, by Hishida Shunsō, 1897, Nihonga style.
Mahākāśyapa holding a flower.
Mahākāśyapa depicted with hair and beard. Mural painting, Kizil Caves, Xinjiang, China, fourth–fifth century CE
Funeral pyre of the Buddha being lit at the arrival of Mahākāśyapa, from Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism, Ananda Coomaraswamy, 1916
In Mahāyāna iconography, Ānanda is often depicted flanking the Buddha at the right side, together with Mahākāśyapa at the left. Temple of Heaven Garden in Shantou, China.

When the Council began the next morning, Mahākāśyapa questioned Upāli, to establish the texts on monastic discipline for monks and bhikṣuṇis.

Head of Ānanda, once part of a limestone sculpture from the northern Xiangtangshan Caves. Northern Qi dynasty, 550–577 CE.

Ānanda

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The primary attendant of the Buddha and one of his ten principal disciples.

The primary attendant of the Buddha and one of his ten principal disciples.

Head of Ānanda, once part of a limestone sculpture from the northern Xiangtangshan Caves. Northern Qi dynasty, 550–577 CE.
Map of India, c. undefined 500 BCE
Chinese statue, identified as likely being Ānanda
18th-century Burmese sculpture of Ānanda
Sculpture of Ānanda from Wat Khao Rup Chang, Songkhla, Thailand
8th-century Chinese limestone sculpture of Ānanda
The early texts attribute the inclusion of women in the early monastic order to Ānanda.
Sculpture at Vulture Peak, Rajgir, India, depicting the Buddha consoling Ānanda
East Javanese relief depicting the Buddha in his final days, and Ānanda
According to Buddhist texts, the First Buddhist Council was held in Rājagaha.
Jetavana temple in Rājagṛiha, India. Wall painting depicting the First Buddhist Council, during which Ānanda is said to have pronounced the formula:"evaṃ me sutaṃ" (Thus have I heard.) as an introduction to each of the Buddha's discourses that he recited from memory.
East Javanese relief of Ānanda, depicted weeping
Partially recovered Indian bas-relief depicting the death of Ānanda. The traditional Buddhist accounts relate that he attained final Nirvana in mid-air above the river Rohīni, leaving relics for followers on both sides of the river.
In Mahāyāna iconography, Ānanda is often depicted flanking the Buddha at the right side, together with Mahākassapa at the left.
8th–9th century Chinese painting, depicting two monks dressed in robes made of pieces. Pāli tradition has it that Ānanda designed the Buddhist monk's robe, based on the structure of rice fields.

The Pāli texts state that Upāli, the person who was responsible for the recitation of the monastic discipline, recited Ānanda does: again, monastic discipline above discourse.

Vinaya

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Division of the Buddhist canon (Tripitaka) containing the rules and procedures that govern the Buddhist monastic community, or Sangha.

Division of the Buddhist canon (Tripitaka) containing the rules and procedures that govern the Buddhist monastic community, or Sangha.

According to Buddhist tradition, the complete Vinaya Piṭaka was recited by Upāli at the First Council shortly after the Buddha's death.

Anuruddha

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One of the ten principal disciples and a cousin of Gautama Buddha.

One of the ten principal disciples and a cousin of Gautama Buddha.

Together with his 3 cousins Bhaddiya, Ananda, and Devadatta and their servant Upali, became ordained by the Buddha at the Anupiya Mango Grove.

Bhāṇaka

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Bhāṇakas (Pali: reciter) were Buddhist monks who specialized in the memorization and recitation of a specific collection of texts within the Buddhist canon.

Bhāṇakas (Pali: reciter) were Buddhist monks who specialized in the memorization and recitation of a specific collection of texts within the Buddhist canon.

At this gathering (known as the First Buddhist Council), Upali was questioned regarding the contents of the Vinaya and Ananda was similarly questioned regarding the Dhamma.