A report on Upholstery

A New England easy chair with its upholstery sectioned
Armchair, designed in 1869 by George Jacob Hunzinger and patented on March 30, 1869. Wood, original upholstery. Brooklyn Museum
An upholstered chair ready to be covered with the decorative outer textile.
Leather-upholstered car seats
A motorboat cockpit.

Work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers.

- Upholstery
A New England easy chair with its upholstery sectioned

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A sewing needle

Sewing needle

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Long slender tool with a pointed tip at one end and a hole to hold the sewing thread.

Long slender tool with a pointed tip at one end and a hole to hold the sewing thread.

A sewing needle
Needles used for hand sewing
Thread through the eye of a No.5 sharp needle
<Center> Magdalenian, Gourdan-Polignan France - Muséum of Toulouse
Bone sewing needle, Early Neolithic period, Xinglongwa Culture
Tibetan needle-case
Metal container for pins from the second half of the 20th century. From the Museo del Objeto del Objeto collection

Upholstery: These needles are heavy, long needles that may be straight or curved and are used for sewing heavy fabrics, upholstery work, tufting and for tying quilts; the curved variety is practical for difficult situations on furniture where a straight needle will not work. Heavy duty 12" (30 cm) long needles are used for repairing mattresses. Straight sizes: 3"-12" long, curved: 1.5"-6" long.

Sewing Fisherman´s Wife by Anna Ancher, 1890.

Sewing

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Craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a sewing needle and thread.

Craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a sewing needle and thread.

Sewing Fisherman´s Wife by Anna Ancher, 1890.
A sewing bird or sewing clamp provides a "third hand" to hold fabric taut. Watercolor by Frank McEntee, National Gallery of Art, Index of American Design.
Early 20th century sewing in Detroit, Michigan.
A woman sewing as a street vendor in Bangkok, Thailand.
Bangladeshi women sewing clothes.
A tailor fitting a suit in Hong Kong.
Hobby sewer cutting out fabric for a dress
Latest sewing machines Brother "Nexio" Direct Drive Lock Stitcher with Electronic Feeding System
Garment construction
Virtual sewing machine tools in a cloth simulation software
Digital clothing created with virtual sewing machine in a cloth simulation software

Today, the low price of ready-made clothing in shops means that home sewing is confined largely to hobbyists in Western countries, with the exception of cottage industries in custom dressmaking and upholstery.

Chair, circa 1772, mahogany, covered in modern red morocco leather, height: 97.2 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

Chair

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Type of seat, typically designed for one person and consisting of one or more legs, a flat seat and a back-rest.

Type of seat, typically designed for one person and consisting of one or more legs, a flat seat and a back-rest.

Chair, circa 1772, mahogany, covered in modern red morocco leather, height: 97.2 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The Coronation Chair, circa 1300
The Monobloc chair is a lightweight stackable polypropylene chair, usually white in colour, often described as the world's most common plastic chair.
Metal chairs in the Tuileries Garden, Paris, France
seats with adjustable height
The type of chair popular in western Hubei, China: with a fairly low seat and the back inclined at about 45 degrees from the vertical
The Aeron chair, with lumbar support
The difference between leg room and seat pitch
rocking chair
Kneeling chair
Polypropylene (molded plastic) seats and stainless steel legs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This type of material is very useful in seaside areas.
Highly decorated carved-back chairs in Mexico
Eames Lounge chair and ottoman
Chair sculpture by Steve Mann, exhibited at San Francisco Art Institute, 2001, comprises spikes that retract when a credit card is inserted to download a seating license.
Prifardd (Poet) Robin Owain in the bardic chair, 1991

They may be made of wood, metal, or synthetic materials, and may be padded or upholstered in various colors and fabrics.

Upholstery coil springs

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Upholstery coil springs are an important part of most modern upholstery.

Handmade floral patterns on textiles, The production of textiles which were initially artisanal work, has grown into a vast field today that includes the production of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and various fibrous products for different domestic and industrial usages.

Textile

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Umbrella term that includes various fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, filaments, threads, different fabric types, etc. At first, the word "textiles" only referred to woven fabrics.

Umbrella term that includes various fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, filaments, threads, different fabric types, etc. At first, the word "textiles" only referred to woven fabrics.

Handmade floral patterns on textiles, The production of textiles which were initially artisanal work, has grown into a vast field today that includes the production of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and various fibrous products for different domestic and industrial usages.
In textile production, longitudinal yarns are referred to as warp and are interlaced with weft or filing yarns to create a woven fabric.
Weaving
Cloth Merchant's Shop
A replica draper's shop at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life, Lincoln, England
A baby wearing many items of soft winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, scarf and sweater
Technical textile is a branch of textile that focuses on the protection, safety and other functional performance attributes of textiles, unlike domestic textiles, where the primary focus is aesthetics and comfort., an EOD technician wearing a bomb suit Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) suit
Nonwoven geotextile bags are much more robust than woven bags of the same thickness.
Early method of bleaching cotton and linen goods on lawns
thumb|Textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan
thumb|Magnified view of a plain or tabby weave textile
thumb|right|Fabric shop in canal town Mukalla, Yemen
thumb|Late antique textile, Egyptian, now in the Dumbarton Oaks collection
thumb|Mrs. Condé Nast wearing a silk Fortuny tea gown
thumb|right|Textiles made from Alpaca wool at the Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador
thumb|The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp ikat in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest Romblon.
thumb|right|A double ikat weaving made by the Tausug people from Sulu, made of banana leaf stalk fiber (Abacá)
thumb|right|Advertisement for Zepel, the trade name used to market Teflon as a fabric treatment
thumb|A weaving shed of the Finlayson & Co factory in Tampere, Finland in 1932<ref>Doria-archive of the Finnish National Library{{full citation needed|date=October 2021}}</ref>
thumb|Textile machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales in the 1940s
thumb|right|Cotton fiber
thumb|right|Nylon
thumb|A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave cotton, velvet, printed cotton, calico, felt, satin, silk, hessian, polycotton
thumb|Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland
thumb|Embroidered skirts by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas, Peru, using traditional Peruvian embroidery methods<ref>Art-Gourds.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081013043017/http://art-gourds.com/the_craft_embroideries/en|date=2008-10-13}} Traditional Peruvian embroidery production methods</ref>
alt=|thumb|A modern umbrella fabric has specific requirements for colour fastness to light, water and wet rubbing, and permeability
thumb|Appliqué cross. The edges are covered and stiches are hidden. It is overlaid with decorative gold thread.
thumb|Clothing made of textiles, Thailand
thumb|Close-up view of a Barong Tagalog made with piña fiber in the Philippines
thumb|A fabric tunnel in Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh.
Sample of calico printed with a six-colour machine by Walter Crum & Co., from Frederick Crace Calvert, Dyeing and Calico Printing (1878).
thumb|A textile factory in Israel, 1969.

A textile is any material made of interlacing fibers, including carpeting and geotextiles, which may not necessarily be used in the production of further goods, such as clothing and upholstery.

The art déco interior of the grand concourse at the 30th Street Station in Philadelphia

Interior design

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Art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.

Art and science of enhancing the interior of a building to achieve a healthier and more aesthetically pleasing environment for the people using the space.

The art déco interior of the grand concourse at the 30th Street Station in Philadelphia
The lobby of Hotel Bristol, Warsaw
A historical example: Balliol College Dining Hall, Oxford
Typical interior of one of the houses in the Folk Architecture Reservation in Vlkolínec (Slovakia)
Reconstructed Roman triclinium or dining room, with three klinai or couches
Illustrated catalog of the James Shoolbred Company, published in 1876.
Illustration from The Grammar of Ornament (1856), by interior designer Owen Jones.
This interior was designed by John Dibblee Crace, President of the Institute of British Decorators, established in 1899.
Elsie de Wolfe, taken from The House in Good Taste, 1913.
Interior design in a restaurant
An electric wire reel reused as a center table at a Rio de Janeiro decoration fair
Installment by L. Gargantini for the Bolzano fair, 1957. Photo by Paolo Monti (Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC).
Terracotta Art Deco sunburst design above front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles; built 1930.
Grand Central Terminal in Midtown Manhattan
Hotel San Domenico in Taormina
Apothecary room
Villa del Balbianello
Lounge (1850)
Bar in Rotterdam
Balboa Bay Club
{{ill|Axel Springer Tower|de|Axel-Springer-Hochhaus}}, Berlin

Throughout the 17th and 18th century and into the early 19th century, interior decoration was the concern of the homemaker, or an employed upholsterer or craftsman who would advise on the artistic style for an interior space.

A scrim used in an art installation

Scrim (material)

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Woven material, either finely woven lightweight fabric widely used in theatre, or a heavy, coarse woven material used for reinforcement in both building and canvasmaking.

Woven material, either finely woven lightweight fabric widely used in theatre, or a heavy, coarse woven material used for reinforcement in both building and canvasmaking.

A scrim used in an art installation
Shop windows in the United Kingdom extensively covered with scrim during the 1940-1941 Blitz
Scrim and sarking

The fabric can also be used for bookbinding and upholstery.

Sideboard by Ince and Mayhew, 1786

Ince and Mayhew

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Sideboard by Ince and Mayhew, 1786

Ince and Mayhew were a partnership of furniture designers, upholsterers and cabinetmakers, founded and run by William Ince (1737–1804) and John Mayhew (1736–1811) in London, from 1759 to 1803; Mayhew continued alone in business until 1809.

A three-cushion couch in an office lobby

Couch

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Cushioned item of furniture for seating multiple people .

Cushioned item of furniture for seating multiple people .

A three-cushion couch in an office lobby
Loriot's sofa at the Deutsche Kinemathek museum, 2012
A Kubus sofa by Josef Hoffmann (1910)
A two-seater upholstered loveseat
A leather couch
Sofa steel production malayer
An upholstered couch
English Settee, c. 1770
Roman style couch for reclining

It is commonly found in the form of a bench, with upholstered armrests, and often fitted with springs and tailored cushion and pillows.

A horse's tail

Horsehair

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Long hair growing on the manes and tails of horses.

Long hair growing on the manes and tails of horses.

A horse's tail
Mane hair is shorter and softer than tail hair.
Louis Bonaparte wearing a dragoon helmet with mane

It is used for various purposes, including upholstery, brushes, the bows of musical instruments, a hard-wearing fabric called haircloth, and for horsehair plaster, a wallcovering material formerly used in the construction industry and now found only in older buildings.