Upper Canada

UpperProvince of Upper CanadaUpper CanadianCanada WestWestern Upper CanadaBritishCanadaCanadianCanadian militiaformer British colony
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the Province of Quebec since 1763.wikipedia
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The Canadas

Upper and Lower CanadaCanadaCanadas
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the Province of Quebec since 1763.
The Canadas is the collective name for the provinces of Lower Canada and Upper Canada, two historical British colonies in present-day Canada.

Northern Ontario

NorthernNorth OntarioNew Ontario
Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France, essentially the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay.
Those areas which formed part of New France in the pays d'en haut, essentially the watersheds of the Ottawa River, Lake Huron and Lake Superior, had been acquired by the British by the Treaty of Paris (1763) and became part of Upper Canada in 1791, and then the Province of Canada between 1840 and 1867.

Loyalist (American Revolution)

LoyalistLoyalistsTories
It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who often were granted land to settle in Upper Canada.
Northern Loyalists largely migrated to Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

Family Compact

Compactelite society of Upper CanadaFamily Compact of Upper Canada
The government of the colony came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact", who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials.
The Family Compact is the term used by historians for a small closed group of men who exercised most of the political, economic and judicial power in Upper Canada (modern Ontario) from the 1810s to the 1840s.

War of 1812

The War of 1812American War of 1812war
In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada. The Family Compact emerged from the War of 1812 and collapsed in the aftermath of the Rebellions of 1837.
American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale.

Quebec

QuébecProvince of QuebecQC
The "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes, mostly above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) to the northeast.
After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) and Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), with each being granted an elected legislative assembly.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaBritish North American
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the Province of Quebec since 1763.
The part of Quebec retained after 1783 was split into the primarily French-speaking Lower Canada and the primarily English-speaking Upper Canada in 1791.

Province of Quebec (1763–1791)

Province of QuebecQuebecBritish Province of Quebec
The Province of Upper Canada (province du Haut-Canada) was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America, formerly part of the Province of Quebec since 1763.
In 1791, the territory north of the Great Lakes was divided into Lower Canada and Upper Canada.

York, Upper Canada

YorkTown of YorkOld Town of York
On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York (now Toronto), which was judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the US.
York was a town and second capital of the district of Upper Canada.

Toronto

Toronto, OntarioToronto, CanadaToronto, ON
On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York (now Toronto), which was judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the US.
After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada.

Northwest Territory

Old NorthwestTerritory Northwest of the River OhioNorthwest
The British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west (i.e., parts of southern Ontario), and other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota.
Lands west of the Mississippi River were the Louisiana Province of New France (acquired by the United States in 1803 by the Louisiana Purchase); lands north of the Great Lakes were the British Province of Upper Canada, and lands south of the Ohio River constituted Kentucky County, Virginia, admitted to the union as the state of Kentucky in 1792.

Niagara-on-the-Lake

NiagaraNiagara-on-the-Lake, OntarioNewark
On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake) to York (now Toronto), which was judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the US.
Niagara-on-the-Lake is important in the history of Canada: it served as the first capital of the Province of Upper Canada, the predecessor of Ontario, called Newark from 1792 to 1797.

Executive Council of Upper Canada

Executive CouncilUpper Canada's Privy CouncilExecutive
The Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, and the Officers of the Crown (equivalent to the Officers of the Parliament of Canada): the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General (only one appointment ever made), Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
The Council was dissolved on 10 February 1841 when Upper Canada and Lower Canada were united into the Province of Canada.

Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry

Ministry of Natural ResourcesOntario Ministry of Natural ResourcesMinister of Natural Resources
The Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, and the Officers of the Crown (equivalent to the Officers of the Parliament of Canada): the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General (only one appointment ever made), Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
In 1791, Upper and Lower Canada were created via the Constitutional Act 1791.

Lower Canada

LowerProvince of Lower CanadaLower Canadian
The "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes, mostly above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) to the northeast. The province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and separate civil and criminal law, rather than mixed as in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The Province of Lower Canada was created by the "Constitutional Act of 1791" from the partition of the British colony of the Province of Quebec (1763–91) into the Province of Lower Canada and the Province of Upper Canada.

Legislative Council of Upper Canada

Legislative CouncilLegislativeLegislative Assembly
The Legislative branch of the government consisted of the parliament comprising legislative council and legislative assembly.
The Legislative Council of Upper Canada was the upper house governing the province of Upper Canada.

Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada

Legislative AssemblyHouse of Assemblyassembly
The Legislative branch of the government consisted of the parliament comprising legislative council and legislative assembly.
The Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada was the elected part of the legislature for the province of Upper Canada, functioning as the lower house in the Parliament of Upper Canada.

Parliament of Upper Canada

parliament
The Legislative branch of the government consisted of the parliament comprising legislative council and legislative assembly.
The Parliament of Upper Canada was the legislature for Upper Canada.

Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet, of Toronto

John Beverley RobinsonJohn RobinsonSir John Beverley Robinson
Leaders such as John Beverley Robinson and John Strachan proclaimed it an ideal government, especially as contrasted with the rowdy democracy in the nearby United States.
Sir John Beverley Robinson, 1st Baronet, (26 July 1791 – 31 January 1863) was a lawyer, judge and political figure in Upper Canada.

John Strachan

Bishop StrachanStrachanRt. Rev. John Strachan
Leaders such as John Beverley Robinson and John Strachan proclaimed it an ideal government, especially as contrasted with the rowdy democracy in the nearby United States.
John Strachan (1778–1867) was a figure in Upper Canada and the first Anglican Bishop of Toronto.

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
The British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west (i.e., parts of southern Ontario), and other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota.
The population of Canada west of the St. Lawrence-Ottawa River confluence substantially increased during this period, a fact recognized by the Constitutional Act of 1791, which split Quebec into the Canadas: Upper Canada southwest of the St. Lawrence-Ottawa River confluence, and Lower Canada east of it.

Rebellions of 1837–1838

Rebellions of 1837Rebellion of 18371837 Rebellion
The Family Compact emerged from the War of 1812 and collapsed in the aftermath of the Rebellions of 1837.
The Rebellions of 1837–1838 (Les rébellions de 1837) were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
The province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and separate civil and criminal law, rather than mixed as in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The Constitutional Act of 1791 created the provinces of Upper Canada (mainly English-speaking) and Lower Canada (mainly French-speaking) to defuse tensions between the French and British communities, and implemented governmental systems similar to those employed in Britain, with the intention of asserting imperial authority and not allowing the sort of popular control of government that was perceived to have led to the American Revolution.

William Warren Baldwin

William W. BaldwinWilliam Baldwin
There were many outstanding individual reform politicians in Upper Canada, including Robert Randal, Peter Perry, Marshall Spring Bidwell, William Ketchum and Dr. William Warren Baldwin; however, organised collective reform activity began with Robert Fleming Gourlay.
William Warren Baldwin (April 25, 1775 – January 8, 1844) was a doctor, businessman, lawyer, judge, architect and reform politician in Upper Canada.

Constitutional Act 1791

Constitutional Act of 1791Constitutional Actconstitution
"Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791.
The largely unpopulated western half became Upper Canada (now southern Ontario) and the eastern half became Lower Canada (now southern Quebec).