Upper Mesopotamia

Jaziraal-JaziraNorthern MesopotamiaThe JezirahJazirahAl JaziraJezirahJaziranthe JaziraAl-Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia)
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.wikipedia
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Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East. The name al-Jazira has been used since the 7th century AD by Islamic sources to refer to the northern section of Mesopotamia, which together with the Sawād, made up al-‘arāq (Iraq).
The term historically included the plain south of the Hamrin Mountains and did not include the northernmost and westernmost parts of the modern territory of Iraq.

Euphrates

Euphrates RiverRiver EuphratesFırat River
The Euphrates and Tigris rivers transform Mesopotamia into almost an island, as they are joined together at the Shatt al-Arab in the Basra Governorate of Iraq, and their sources in eastern Turkey are in close proximity.
Once the Euphrates enters the Upper Mesopotamian plains, its grade drops significantly; within Syria the river falls 163 m while over the last stretch between Hīt and the Shatt al-Arab the river drops only 55 m.

Deir ez-Zor

Deir EzzorDer ZorDeir al-Zour
The major settlements are Mosul, Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa, al-Hasakah, Diyarbakır and Qamishli.
After the successive defeats of Byzantine forces,The Byzantine Emperor Heraclius requested the help of the Arab Christians in Mesopotamia who had mobilized a large army and headed towards Homs where the base of Abu Ubaidah in northern Syria, and Heraclius sent to them a soldiers across the sea from Alexandria, Omar ibn al-Khattab wrote to Saad ibn Abi Waqqas to support Abu Ubaidah of muslims from the people of Iraq, So he sent armies with the commanders, including Iyad ibn Ghanm, When the Romans who were besieging Homs heared about the muslims army that was coming from Iraq, withdrew from Homs and returned to their country, Saad wrote to Iyad to invade The Euphrates Island and he conquered in 17 AH and during his march conquered Deir Ezzor, where its people were on that day on the religion of Christianity and Judaism, There was a Christian monastery in the city called Monastery of the Hermits, later built in its place Omari Mosque, Since then, Muslims had come to the city of Deir ez-Zor from Iraq and other countries because of its good location, which combines the purity of air and the abundance of water, and christians had started increasingly disperse, and some of them had converted to Islam.

Raqqa

CallinicumRaqqahRaqqa, Syria
The major settlements are Mosul, Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa, al-Hasakah, Diyarbakır and Qamishli.
Ibn Ghanm's successor as governor of Raqqa and the Jazira, Sa'id ibn Amir ibn Hidhyam, built the city's first mosque.

Mosul

Mosul, IraqMusulMossul
The major settlements are Mosul, Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa, al-Hasakah, Diyarbakır and Qamishli. Al-Jazira included the Roman/Byzantine provinces of Osroene and Mesopotamia, as well as the Parthian/Persian provinces of Asōristān, Arbayestan, Nisibis, and Mosul.
From Mosul, the Hamdanids under Abdallah ibn Hamdan and his son Nasir al-Dawla expanded their control over Upper Mesopotamia for several decades, first as governors of the Abbassids and later as de facto independent rulers.

Syriac language

SyriacClassical SyriacSyriac-Aramaic
Since the early Muslim conquests of the mid-7th century, the region has been known by the traditional Arabic name of al-Jazira (الجزيرة "the island", also transliterated Djazirah, Djezirah, Jazirah) and the Syriac (Aramaic) variant Gāzartā or Gozarto .
In many places outside of Upper Mesopotamia, even in liturgy, it was replaced by Arabic.

Rojava

Democratic Federation of Northern SyriaAutonomous Administration of North and East SyriaSyrian Kurdistan
This area now has large swaths controlled by Rojava.
Some Circassian, Kurdish and Chechen tribes cooperated with the Ottoman (Turkish) authorities in the massacres of Armenian and Assyrian Christians in Upper Mesopotamia, between 1914 and 1920, with further attacks on unarmed fleeing civilians conducted by local Arab militias.

Pre-Pottery Neolithic A

PPNAAceramic NeolithicSultanian
At several sites (e.g. Hallan Çemi, Abu Hureyra, Mureybet) we can see a continuous occupation from a hunter-gathering lifestyle (based on hunting, and gathering and grinding of wild grains) to an economy based mainly on growing (still wild varieties of) wheat, barley and legumes from around 9000 BC (see PPNA).
Archaeological remains are located in the Levantine and Upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent.

Breadbasket

rice bowlAmerican wheatbeltBreadbasket of the United States
The western, Syrian part, is essentially contiguous with the Syrian al-Hasakah Governorate and is described as "Syria's breadbasket".
The Al-Jazira area in northwestern Syria, and its Euphrates basin is considered the country's breadbasket due to its abundance of wheat.

Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Al-Jazira in the northeast and Hawran in the south are important agricultural areas.

Assyria

Assyrian EmpireAssyriansAssyrian
Upper Mesopotamia is also the heartland of ancient Assyria, founded circa the 25th century BC.
A largely Semitic-speaking realm, Assyria was centred on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia (modern northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and the northwestern fringes of Iran).

Old Assyrian Empire

AssyrianOld AssyrianAssyria
From the late 24th Century BC it was part of the Akkadian Empire, which is separated into three eras: Old Assyrian Empire (circa 2050–1750 BC), Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1020 BC), and Neo Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC).
Centered on the Tigris–Euphrates river system in Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrian people came to rule powerful empires at several times.

Achaemenid Assyria

AthuraAssyriaAchaemenid
The region fell to the Assyrians' southern brethren, the Babylonians in 605 BC, and from 539 BC it became part of the Achaemenid Empire; Achaemenid Assyria was known as Athura.
Athura ( Aθurā), also called Assyria, was a geographical area within the Achaemenid Empire in Upper Mesopotamia from 539 to 330 BC as a military protectorate state.

Khabur (Euphrates)

Khabur RiverKhaburUpper Khabur
The Khabur runs for over 400 km across the plain, from Turkey in the north, feeding into the Euphrates.
The region has given its name to a distinctive painted ware found in northern Mesopotamia and Syria in the early 2nd millennium BCE, called Khabur ware.

Osroene

OsrhoeneEdessaKingdom of Osroene
Al-Jazira included the Roman/Byzantine provinces of Osroene and Mesopotamia, as well as the Parthian/Persian provinces of Asōristān, Arbayestan, Nisibis, and Mosul.
Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; "Kingdom of Urhay"; ) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by the Abgarid dynasty of Arab origin.

Asoristan

AssuristanAsōristānAsuristan
The area was still known as Asōristān under the Sasanian Empire until the Muslim conquest of Persia, when it was renamed al-Jazira.
The Parthians had exercised only loose control at times, allowing for a number of Syriac-speaking Assyrian kingdoms to flourish in Upper Mesopotamia, the independent Osroene, as well as the districts of Adiabene and the partly Assyrian state of Hatra.

Sawad

SawādIraqal-sawād
The name al-Jazira has been used since the 7th century AD by Islamic sources to refer to the northern section of Mesopotamia, which together with the Sawād, made up al-‘arāq (Iraq).
Under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, it was an official political term for a province encompassing most of modern Iraq (except for the western desert and al-Jazira in the north).

Sayf al-Dawla

Sayf al-DaulaSaif al-DaulaSayf ad-Dawla
In the 920s, the local Hamdanid dynasty established an autonomous state with two branches in al-Jazira (under Nasir al-Dawla) and Northern Syria (under Sayf al-Dawla).
ʿAlī ibn ʾAbū l-Hayjāʾ ʿAbdallāh ibn Ḥamdān ibn al-Ḥārith al-Taghlibī, more commonly known simply by his laqab (honorific epithet) of Sayf al-Dawla (سيف الدولة, "Sword of the Dynasty"), was the founder of the Emirate of Aleppo, encompassing most of northern Syria and parts of western Jazira, and the brother of al-Hasan ibn Abdallah ibn Hamdan (better known as Nasir al-Dawla).

Nasir al-Dawla

Hasan ibn Abdallah
In the 920s, the local Hamdanid dynasty established an autonomous state with two branches in al-Jazira (under Nasir al-Dawla) and Northern Syria (under Sayf al-Dawla).
Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Abu'l-Hayja 'Abdallah ibn Hamdan al-Taghlibi (أبو محمد الحسن ابن أبو الهيجاء عبدالله ابن حمدان ناصر الدولة التغلبي; died 968 or 969), more commonly known simply by his laqab (honorific epithet) of Nasir al-Dawla ("Defender of the [Abbasid] Dynasty"), was the second Hamdanid ruler of the Emirate of Mosul, encompassing most of the Jazira.

Numayrid dynasty

Banu NumayrNumayridNumayrids
At the turn of the 11th century, the area came under the rule of a number of local dynasties, the Numayrids, the Mirdasids, and the Uqaylids, who persisted until the conquest by the Seljuq Empire.
The Numayrids were an Arab dynasty based in Diyar Mudar (western Upper Mesopotamia).

Muawiyah I

Mu'awiya IMu'awiyaMuawiyah
At the time of Mu‘awiyah, governor of Syria and the later of the Umayyad Caliphate), the administration of al-Jazira was included in the administration of Syria.
Following the death of Abu Ubayda in the plague of Amwas in 639, Umar split the command of Syria, appointing Yazid as governor of the military districts of Damascus, Jordan and Palestine, and Iyad ibn Ghanm governor of Homs and the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia).

Uqaylid dynasty

UqaylidsUqaylidUqailid
At the turn of the 11th century, the area came under the rule of a number of local dynasties, the Numayrids, the Mirdasids, and the Uqaylids, who persisted until the conquest by the Seljuq Empire.
The Uqaylid dynasty was a Shi'a Arab dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq in the late tenth and eleventh centuries.

Ayyubid dynasty

AyyubidAyyubidsAyyubid Sultanate
With the arrival of the First Crusade, the western part came into Crusader hands as the County of Edessa, while the rest was ruled by a succession of semi-independent Turkish rulers until taken over by the Zengids, and eventually the Ayyubids.
For the next decade, the Ayyubids launched conquests throughout the region and by 1183, their domains encompassed Egypt, Syria, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz, Yemen and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.

Umayyad Caliphate

UmayyadUmmayadUmayyads
At the time of Mu‘awiyah, governor of Syria and the later of the Umayyad Caliphate), the administration of al-Jazira was included in the administration of Syria.
In 645/46, he added the Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia) to Mu'awiya's Syrian governorship and granted the latter's request to take possession of all Byzantine crown lands in Syria to help pay his troops.

Akkadian Empire

AkkadAkkadianAkkadians
From the late 24th Century BC it was part of the Akkadian Empire, which is separated into three eras: Old Assyrian Empire (circa 2050–1750 BC), Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1020 BC), and Neo Assyrian Empire (911–605 BC).
To better police Syria, he built a royal residence at Tell Brak, a crossroads at the heart of the Khabur River basin of the Jezirah.