Urban design

Monumental Axis, Brasília designed by Oscar Niemeyer and Lúcio Costa
Model of Dubai Sports City in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Ebenezer Howard's influential 1902 diagram, illustrating urban growth through garden city "off-shoots"
Jane Jacobs, urban design activist and author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities.
Jakriborg, in Sweden, started in the late 1990s as a new urbanist eco-friendly new town near Malmö
L'Enfant's plan for Washington DC
Gehl Architects' project for Brighton New Road employing shared space
Protest banner during the Climate Change Camp 2007 at Heathrow Airport in London.
Boulevard Haussmann, Paris (Georges-Eugène Haussmann)
Vienna Ring Road, Vienna, (Georges-Eugène Haussmann)
Circus, Bath completed in 1768
Brasília (Oscar Niemeyer, Lúcio Costa)
Palace of Assembly (Chandigarh) (1952–1961) (Le Corbusier)
Headquarters of the United Nations
FDR Drive designed by Robert Moses
Market Street, Celebration, Florida
New urbanist Sankt Eriksområdet quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s
Poundbury, Dorset
BedZED, Hackfield, London
BedZED, Hackfield, London
Arcosanti, Arizona

About the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, and regional spaces, it is also about social design and other larger scale issues.

- Urban design
Monumental Axis, Brasília designed by Oscar Niemeyer and Lúcio Costa

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Seaside, Florida

New Urbanism

Seaside, Florida
Market Street, Celebration, Florida
New Broad Street, Baldwin Park, Florida
Beach Drive, St. Petersburg, Florida
Celebration, Florida Post Office, designed by architect Michael Graves
A park in Celebration, Florida
Great King St, New Town, Edinburgh
A Mediterranean Revival house in Celebration, Florida
A Key West style house in Baldwin Park, Florida
New urbanist Sankt Eriksområdet quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s. (More photos)
Traffic along Lornie Road, Singapore.
New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighbourhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types.

Measures for urban sprawl in Europe: upper left the Dispersion of the built-up area (DIS), upper right the weighted urban proliferation (WUP)

Urban sprawl

Defined as "the spreading of urban developments (such as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city".

Defined as "the spreading of urban developments (such as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city".

Measures for urban sprawl in Europe: upper left the Dispersion of the built-up area (DIS), upper right the weighted urban proliferation (WUP)
This picture shows the metropolitan areas of the Northeast Megalopolis of the United States demonstrating urban sprawl, including far-flung suburbs and exurbs illuminated at night.
Traffic congestion in sprawling São Paulo, Brazil, which, according to Time magazine, has the world's worst traffic jams.
Low-density housing placed between large farms in an exurban community in Tennessee
Sprawl in Milton, Ontario. This photograph is an example of Canadian exurban development, though recently attempts are made to reduce this type of development in many major cities.
Clustered commercial strips like this one in Breezewood, Pennsylvania are common in outer rural exurbs and suburbs in metropolitan areas.
Walmart Supercenter in Luray, Virginia.
The urban sprawl of Melbourne.
The Chicago metro area, nicknamed "Chicagoland".
Road Space Requirements
Major cities – per capita petrol use vs. population density
A majority of Californians live, commute, and work in the vast and extensive web of Southern California freeways.
The Metropolitan Green Belt first proposed by the London County Council in 1935.
Many Canadian cities feature numerous pockets of high density throughout even their most distant suburbs. As a result, some Canadian suburbs have skylines that rival large American cities. Pictured are the skylines of Burnaby, British Columbia, a suburb of Vancouver.

Walkability is an important concept in sustainable urban design.

Jacobs as chair of a Greenwich Village civic group at a 1961 press conference

Jane Jacobs

American-Canadian journalist, author, theorist, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics.

American-Canadian journalist, author, theorist, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics.

Jacobs as chair of a Greenwich Village civic group at a 1961 press conference
Cover of The Death and Life of Great American Cities
Jacobs fought to prevent Washington Square Park, pictured, from being demolished for a highway
Jacobs lived at 69 Albany Avenue (white porch) in Toronto's Annex for 35 years
Jacobs with Ecotrust foreman Spencer Beebe in Portland, Oregon, 2004
A "Jane's Walk" group pauses at Fort York National Historic Site in Toronto

Later that year, the Rockefeller Foundation awarded a grant to Jacobs to produce a critical study of city planning and urban life in the U.S. (From the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, the foundation's Humanities Division sponsored an "Urban Design Studies" research program, of which Jacobs was the best known grantee.) Gilpatric encouraged Jacobs to "explor[e] the field of urban design to look for ideas and actions which may improve thinking on how the design of cities might better serve urban life, including cultural and humane value."

In adding the dome to the Florence Cathedral (Italy) in the early 15th century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.

Architecture

Both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures.

Both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures.

In adding the dome to the Florence Cathedral (Italy) in the early 15th century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect.
Illustration of bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers from Yingzao Fashi, a text on architecture by Li Jue (1065–1110)
Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734.
The National Congress of Brazil, designed by Oscar Niemeyer
Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785)
Charles Rennie Mackintosh – Music Room 1901
Body plan of a ship showing the hull form
In Norway: wood and elevated-level
In Lesotho: rondavel stones
In Ireland: Yola hut
In Romania: peasant houses in the Dimitrie Gusti National Village Museum (Bucharest)
Göbekli Tepe from Turkey, founded in 10th millennium BC and abandoned in 8th millennium BC
Pottery miniature of a Cucuteni-Trypillian house
Miniature of a regular Cucuteni-Trypillian house, full of ceramic vessels
Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae (Mainland, Orkney, Scotland, UK)
Mesopotamian architecture: Reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate in the Pergamon Museum (Berlin, Germany), circa 575 BC
Ancient Egyptian architecture: The Great Pyramid of Giza (Giza, Egypt), circa 2589-2566 BC, by Hemiunu
Ancient Greek architecture: The Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, made of marble and limestone, 460-406 BC
Ancient Roman architecture: The Maison Carrée from Nîmes (France), one of the best-preserved Roman temples, circa 2 AD
Indian architecture: The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple (Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh, India), circa 1030
Chinese architecture: The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests, the main building of the Temple of Heaven (Beijing, China), 1703-1790
Japanese architecture: The Himeji Castle (Himeji, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan), 1609
Khmer architecture: The Bakong (near Siem Reap, Cambodia), earliest surviving Temple Mountain at Angkor, completed in 881 AD
Moorish architecture: Grand arches of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba (Córdoba, Spain)
Persian architecture: The Jameh Mosque in Isfahan (Iran)
Mughal architecture: The Taj Mahal in Agra (India)
Ottoman architecture: The interior side view of the main dome of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne (Turkey)
Byzantine architecture: Apse of Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome), decorated in the 5th century with this glamorous mosaic
Romanesque architecture: Interior of the Durham Cathedral (Durham, UK), 1093-1133
Gothic architecture: Stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, completed in 1248, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220
Brâncovenesc architecture: The Stavropoleos Church (downtown Bucharest, Romania), with elaborate paintings on the façade, 1724
The Florence Cathedral (Florence, Italy), 1294–1436, by Arnolfo di Cambio, Filippo Brunelleschi and Emilio De Fabris
The Tempietto (Rome), by Donato Bramante, 1444-1514
The Hall of Perspective from Villa Farnesina (Rome), by Baldassare Peruzzi, 1505-1510
The Villa La Rotonda (Vicenza, Italy), 1567 - {{c.|1592}}, by Andrea Palladio
The Château de Chenonceau (France), by Philibert de l'Orme, 1576
Baroque architecture: The Château de Maisons (France), by François Mansart, 1630–1651
Rococo architecture: The pièce de la vaisselle d'or (Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France)
Neoclassical architecture: The west facade of the Petit Trianon (Versailles), 1764, by Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Historicist architecture (in this case Gothic Revival): Interior of the All Saints (London), 1850–1859, by William Butterfield
19th century Eclectic Classicist architecture: The Museum of Ages on Victory Avenue (Bucharest, Romania), late 19th century, unknown architect
19th century industrial architecture: Les Halles (Paris), 1850s-destroyed in 1971, by Victor Baltard
Orientalist architecture: The Éden-Théâtre (Paris), early 1880s-demolished in 1895, by William Klein and Albert Duclos
Revivalist architecture of a national style (in this case Romanian Revival): The Cihoski House on Bulevardul Dacia (Bucharest), late 19th-early 20th century, unknown architect
Beaux-Arts architecture: The CEC Palace on Victory Avenue (Bucharest), 8 June 1897 – 1900, by Paul Gottereau<ref>{{cite book|last1=Marinache|first1=Oana|title=Paul Gottereau - Un Regal în Arhitectură|date=2017|publisher=Editura Istoria Artei|isbn=978-606-8839-09-7|page=184|url=|language=ro}}</ref>
Art Nouveau architecture: The Entrance of the Castel Béranger (Paris), 1895–1898, by Hector Guimard
Early Modern architecture: The Fagus Factory (Alfeld, Germany), 1911, by Walter Gropius
Expressionist architecture: The Einstein Tower (Potsdam, near Berlin, Germany), 1919–1922, by Erich Mendelsohn
Art Deco architecture: The Théâtre des Champs-Élysées (Paris), 1910–1913, by Auguste Perret
International Style: The Glaspaleis (Heerlen, the Netherlands), 1934–1935, by Frits Peutz and Philip Johnson
Piazza d'Italia (New Orleans, USA), 1978, by Charles Moore
Team Disney Building (Los Angeles, USA), 1990, by Michael Graves
Multicolour interior of the Cambridge Judge Business School (Cambridge, the UK), 1995, by John Outram
The Dancing House (Prague, Czech Republic), 1996, by Vlado Milunić and Frank Gehry
The Meadows Museum (Dallas, Texas, USA), 2001, by HBRA architects
The Beijing National Stadium (Beijing, China), 2003–2007, by Herzog & de Meuron
The Library and Learning Center of the University of Vienna (Vienna, Austria), 2008, by Zaha Hadid
The Isbjerget housing project (Aarhus, Denmark), inspired by form and color of icebergs, 2013, by CEBRA, JDS Architects, Louis Paillard, and SeARCH

The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture). The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.

Partizánske in Slovakia – an example of a typical planned European industrial city founded in 1938 together with a shoemaking factory in which practically all adult inhabitants of the city were employed.

Urban planning

Technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks and their accessibility.

Technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the built environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks and their accessibility.

Partizánske in Slovakia – an example of a typical planned European industrial city founded in 1938 together with a shoemaking factory in which practically all adult inhabitants of the city were employed.
1852 city plan of Pori by G.T. von Chiewitz
Berlin - Siegessäule. August 1963. Spacious and organized city planning in Germany was official government policy dating back to Nazi rule.
Street Hierarchy and Accessibility

It is closely related to the field of urban design and some urban planners provide designs for streets, parks, buildings and other urban areas.

Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785), "the first landscape gardener, who showed in a single work, genius of the highest order"

Landscape architecture

Design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.

Design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes.

Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785), "the first landscape gardener, who showed in a single work, genius of the highest order"
Orangery at the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London, established 1759 The Palm House, Kew, built 1844–1848 by Richard Turner to Decimus Burton's designs
Urban design in city squares. Water feature in London, by Tadao Ando who also works with landscapes and gardens
The combination of the traditional landscape gardening and the emerging city planning combined gave landscape architecture its unique focus. Frederick Law Olmsted used the term 'landscape architecture' using the word as a profession for the first time when designing the Central Park.
The National Mall in Washington, D.C. includes many examples of landscape architecture based on historical memorials and monuments.
Potager in Dordogne, France
Japanese garden in Ōtsu, Japan
Classical Chinese garden
Topiary in Helsingborg, Sweden
Asian sculpture garden in Texas, United States
Vigeland sculpture garden in Oslo, Norway
Roof terrace garden (Ventimiglia, Italy)
Escorial Formal palace garden in Madrid, Spain
Mediterranean garden in Alpes-Maritimes, France
Use of steps at Villa la Magia, in Quarrata, Italy
Lurie Garden in Chicago, United States, GGN & Piet Oudolf
High Line (second section) A repurposed area in New York City, United States
Parque Madrid Rio Formal use of water in Madrid, Spain
Schouwburgplein Urban park in Rotterdam, Netherlands
911 Memorial Park A memorial park in New York City United States

Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, incorporating aspects of urban design, architecture, geography, ecology, civil engineering, structural engineering, horticulture, environmental psychology, industrial design, soil sciences, botany, and fine arts.

Ebenezer Howard's three magnets diagram which addressed the question 'Where will the people go?', with the choices 'Town', 'Country' or 'Town-Country'

Garden city movement

20th century urban planning movement promoting satellite communities surrounding the central city and separated with greenbelts.

20th century urban planning movement promoting satellite communities surrounding the central city and separated with greenbelts.

Ebenezer Howard's three magnets diagram which addressed the question 'Where will the people go?', with the choices 'Town', 'Country' or 'Town-Country'
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The Workers Academy in Kauniainen, the garden city of Finland
An attempt at a garden city: Zlín in Czech Republic (architect: František Lydie Gahura)
Svit in Slovakia – originally in 1934 planned as a combination of an industrial and garden city
Park median in Avenida Ámsterdam, the "grand avenue" of the Mexico City subdivision Colonia Hipódromo de la Condesa, designed in 1926 and inspired in part by Ebenezer Howard's Garden City
Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.
Diagram No.1: The Three Magnets (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.2 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.3 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.4 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.5 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.6 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.7 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.
Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.
Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.
Diagram No.1 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.)
Diagram No.2 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.)
Diagram No.3 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.)
Diagram No.4 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.)
"Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.
"Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.
Diagram No.1 ("Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.)
Diagram No.2 ("Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.)
"Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.

It is often referred to as an urban-design experiment which is typified by failure due to the laneways used as common entries and exits to the houses, thereby helping to ghettoise communities and encourage crime; it has ultimately triggered efforts to 'de-Radburn'-ize, or to partially demolish American-Radburn-designed public housing areas.

Alexander in 2012

Christopher Alexander

Austrian-born British-American architect and design theorist.

Austrian-born British-American architect and design theorist.

Alexander in 2012
Entrance to the Sala House

His theories about the nature of human-centered design have affected fields beyond architecture, including urban design, software, and sociology.

Land management has preserved the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia while allowing ample access for visitors.

Environmental psychology

Branch of psychology that explores the relationship between humans and the external world.

Branch of psychology that explores the relationship between humans and the external world.

Land management has preserved the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia while allowing ample access for visitors.

Project for Public Spaces (PPS) is a nonprofit organization that works to improve public spaces, particularly parks, civic centers, public markets, downtowns, and campuses. The staff of PPS is made up of individuals trained in environmental design, architecture, urban planning, urban geography, urban design, environmental psychology, landscape architecture, arts administration and information management. The organization has collaborated with many major institutions to improve the appearance and functionality of public spaces throughout the United States. In 2005, PPS co-founded The New York City Streets Renaissance, a campaign that worked to develop a new campaign model for transportation reform. This initiative implemented the transformation of excess sidewalk space in the Meatpacking District of Manhattan into public space. Also, by 2008, New York City reclaimed 49 acre of traffic lanes and parking spots away from cars and gave it back to the public as bike lanes and public plazas.

Kevin A. Lynch

American urban planner and author.

American urban planner and author.

He practiced site planning and urban design professionally with Carr/Lynch Associates, later known as Carr, Lynch, and Sandell.