Urban design

Monumental Axis, Brasília designed by Oscar Niemeyer and Lúcio Costa
Model of Dubai Sports City in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Ebenezer Howard's influential 1902 diagram, illustrating urban growth through garden city "off-shoots"
Jane Jacobs, urban design activist and author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities.
Jakriborg, in Sweden, started in the late 1990s as a new urbanist eco-friendly new town near Malmö
L'Enfant's plan for Washington DC
Gehl Architects' project for Brighton New Road employing shared space
Protest banner during the Climate Change Camp 2007 at Heathrow Airport in London.
Boulevard Haussmann, Paris (Georges-Eugène Haussmann)
Vienna Ring Road, Vienna, (Georges-Eugène Haussmann)
Circus, Bath completed in 1768
Brasília (Oscar Niemeyer, Lúcio Costa)
Palace of Assembly (Chandigarh) (1952–1961) (Le Corbusier)
Headquarters of the United Nations
FDR Drive designed by Robert Moses
Market Street, Celebration, Florida
New urbanist Sankt Eriksområdet quarter in Stockholm, Sweden, built in the 1990s
Poundbury, Dorset
BedZED, Hackfield, London
BedZED, Hackfield, London
Arcosanti, Arizona

About the process of designing and shaping the physical features of cities, and regional spaces, it is also about social design and other larger scale issues.

- Urban design
Monumental Axis, Brasília designed by Oscar Niemeyer and Lúcio Costa

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Apartment complex with retail and medical offices on ground floor, Kirkland, Washington

Mixed-use development

Apartment complex with retail and medical offices on ground floor, Kirkland, Washington
Ballston Common in Arlington, Virginia, part of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area, is transit-oriented, mixed-use and densified, giving a "downtown" feel in an edge city
Traditional mixed-use development pattern in a city center: Bitola, North Macedonia
Barracks Row, DC. Ground level retail with upper story residential.
Apartments with ground floor retail and ice skating rink at Pentagon Row in Arlington, VA.
"The Vessel" - Tourist attraction featuring interconnected staircases with viewing ledges in mixed-use neighborhood of Hudson Yards, NY.
Mixed-use spaces developed in Portland, Oregon

Mixed-use is a kind of urban development, urban design, urban planning and/or a zoning type that blends multiple uses, such as residential, commercial, cultural, institutional, or entertainment, into one space, where those functions are to some degree physically and functionally integrated, and that provides pedestrian connections.

Arlington Row Bibury

Neighbourhood character

Area', in particular a residential area.

Area', in particular a residential area.

Arlington Row Bibury

As interest in the concept of place has increased since the 1970s, urban designers and planners have accordingly become more focused on issues of character.

A simple grid plan from 1908 of Palaio Faliro.

Grid plan

Type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid.

Type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid.

A simple grid plan from 1908 of Palaio Faliro.
A grid plan from 1799 of Pori, Finland, by Isaac Tillberg.
The city of Adelaide, South Australia was laid out in a grid, surrounded by gardens and parks.
The grid plan of Miletus in the Classical period
Bastide schema in Gascony
The map of St. Petersburg (1717). The grid of 'lines' and 'prospekts' is seen across the whole rectangular Vasilyevsky Island, while actually only the eastern part was built
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A diagram of three U.S. city grids at the same scale showing the differences in dimensions and configuration
Twenty American grids compared at the same scale
Map of the Original City of Philadelphia in 1682 by Thomas Holme
Barcelona
The city blocks and streets of Barcelona as conceived by Ildefons Cerdà. The blocks include wide open spaces that continue across the street to adjacent blocks.
Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso, ex Upper Volta, Africa), 1930
A one km2 sector in Milton Keynes framed by major roads in a grid configuration. The road network within the sector uses cul-de-sac streets complemented by bike and foot paths which connect the entire sector and beyond.
Block sizes and street length
In a numbered grid system, adding an extra street can cause confusion
Surveyor's plan of Salt Lake City, circa 1870s - an example of a typical, uniform, square-grid street network
A 2×2 km square segment of the street network of Paris that often, and erroneously, is characterized as a grid. It shows the highly irregular city blocks and the range of street orientations, both common attributes of many historic cities
Schematic plan of Hoddle's allotments for the village of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, March 1837
Grid street plan Comparison in the Philippines

In a way, this is a return to medieval styles: as noted in Spiro Kostof's seminal history of urban design, The City Shaped, there is a strong resemblance between the street arrangements of modern American suburbs and those of medieval Arab and Moorish cities.

Ebenezer Howard's three magnets diagram which addressed the question 'Where will the people go?', with the choices 'Town', 'Country' or 'Town-Country'

Garden city movement

20th century urban planning movement promoting satellite communities surrounding the central city and separated with greenbelts.

20th century urban planning movement promoting satellite communities surrounding the central city and separated with greenbelts.

Ebenezer Howard's three magnets diagram which addressed the question 'Where will the people go?', with the choices 'Town', 'Country' or 'Town-Country'
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The Workers Academy in Kauniainen, the garden city of Finland
An attempt at a garden city: Zlín in Czech Republic (architect: František Lydie Gahura)
Svit in Slovakia – originally in 1934 planned as a combination of an industrial and garden city
Park median in Avenida Ámsterdam, the "grand avenue" of the Mexico City subdivision Colonia Hipódromo de la Condesa, designed in 1926 and inspired in part by Ebenezer Howard's Garden City
Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.
Diagram No.1: The Three Magnets (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.2 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.3 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.4 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.5 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.6 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Diagram No.7 (Ebenezer Howard, To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform.)
Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.
Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.
Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.
Diagram No.1 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.)
Diagram No.2 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.)
Diagram No.3 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.)
Diagram No.4 (Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of To-morrow.)
"Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.
"Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.
Diagram No.1 ("Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.)
Diagram No.2 ("Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.)
"Den-en Toshi (Garden City)" Tokyo: Hakubunkan, 1907.

It is often referred to as an urban-design experiment which is typified by failure due to the laneways used as common entries and exits to the houses, thereby helping to ghettoise communities and encourage crime; it has ultimately triggered efforts to 'de-Radburn'-ize, or to partially demolish American-Radburn-designed public housing areas.

Measures for urban sprawl in Europe: upper left the Dispersion of the built-up area (DIS), upper right the weighted urban proliferation (WUP)

Urban sprawl

Defined as "the spreading of urban developments (such as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city".

Defined as "the spreading of urban developments (such as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city".

Measures for urban sprawl in Europe: upper left the Dispersion of the built-up area (DIS), upper right the weighted urban proliferation (WUP)
This picture shows the metropolitan areas of the Northeast Megalopolis of the United States demonstrating urban sprawl, including far-flung suburbs and exurbs illuminated at night.
Traffic congestion in sprawling São Paulo, Brazil, which, according to Time magazine, has the world's worst traffic jams.
Low-density housing placed between large farms in an exurban community in Tennessee
Sprawl in Milton, Ontario. This photograph is an example of Canadian exurban development, though recently attempts are made to reduce this type of development in many major cities.
Clustered commercial strips like this one in Breezewood, Pennsylvania are common in outer rural exurbs and suburbs in metropolitan areas.
Walmart Supercenter in Luray, Virginia.
The urban sprawl of Melbourne.
The Chicago metro area, nicknamed "Chicagoland".
Road Space Requirements
Major cities – per capita petrol use vs. population density
A majority of Californians live, commute, and work in the vast and extensive web of Southern California freeways.
The Metropolitan Green Belt first proposed by the London County Council in 1935.
Many Canadian cities feature numerous pockets of high density throughout even their most distant suburbs. As a result, some Canadian suburbs have skylines that rival large American cities. Pictured are the skylines of Burnaby, British Columbia, a suburb of Vancouver.

Walkability is an important concept in sustainable urban design.