Urdu

Urdu languageUrdu:HindiUrdu-speakingاردوUrdu-languageStandard UrduUrdu speaking UrduDeccani Urdu
Urdu (undefined ALA-LC: ) (also known as Lashkari, locally written )—or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.wikipedia
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Hindustani language

HindustaniHindi-UrduHindi
Urdu (undefined ALA-LC: ) (also known as Lashkari, locally written )—or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, Urdu, along with Standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt (as Hindustani), is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with approximately 329.1 million native speakers, and 697.4 million total speakers.
Hindustani (𑂯𑂱𑂢𑂹𑂠𑂳𑂮𑂹𑂞𑂰𑂢𑂲, Urdu: ), also known as Hindi-Urdu and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi and Rekhta, is the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan.

Languages of Pakistan

Pakistani languagesMain Language(s)others
It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan.
Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Urdu.

Uttar Pradesh

UPUttar Pradesh, IndiaU.P.
In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognised in the Constitution of India, having official status in the five states of Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi. These include parts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra (Marathwada), Karnataka and cities such as Lucknow, Delhi, Bareilly, Meerut, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee, Deoband, Moradabad, Azamgarh, Bijnor, Najibabad, Rampur, Aligarh, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Badaun, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Gulbarga, Parbhani, Nanded, Kochi, Malegaon, Bidar, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.
Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state, along with Urdu.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan.
The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian.

Hindi–Urdu controversy

Hindi-Urdu controversycampaigndemanded
Religious, social, and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy.
Hindi and Urdu are generally understood in linguistic terms as two forms or dialects of a single language, Hindustani (or Hindi-Urdu), that are written in two different scripts: Devanagari (for Hindi) and a modified Perso-Arabic script (for Urdu).

North India

Northern IndianorthernNorth Indian
The Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India.
The languages that have official status in one or more of the states and union territories located in North India are Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi and English.

List of languages by total number of speakers

largest language by number of speakers3rd most spoken language in the world3rd-most spoken language in the world
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, Urdu, along with Standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt (as Hindustani), is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with approximately 329.1 million native speakers, and 697.4 million total speakers.

Gopi Chand Narang

Gopichand NarangGopi Chand Narang,
This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide that was formalised with the division of India and Pakistan after independence (though there are Hindu poets who continue to write in Urdu to this day, with post-independence examples including Gopi Chand Narang and Gulzar).
Gopi Chand Narang (born 11 February 1931 in Dukki, Balochistan) is an Indian theorist, literary critic and scholar who writes in Urdu and English.

Dakhini

DakhaniDeccani UrduDakhni
Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni (Deccan) of South India, and Khariboli of the Punjab region.
1300 AD in ways similar to Urdu.

Sialkot

SealkoteSialkot citySialkot Sector
Urdu is therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Okara District, Sialkot, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Jhang, Sargodha and Skardu.
Sialkot (Urdu and ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
There have been attempts to purge Urdu of Sanskrit words, and Hindi of Persian loanwords – new vocabulary draws primarily from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
Examples include numerous, modern, North Indian, subcontinental daughter languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Kumaoni, Garhwali, Urdu, Dogri, Maithili, Konkani, Assamese, Odia, and Nepali.

Telangana

Telangana StateTelenganaTelangana region
In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognised in the Constitution of India, having official status in the five states of Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi. These include parts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra (Marathwada), Karnataka and cities such as Lucknow, Delhi, Bareilly, Meerut, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee, Deoband, Moradabad, Azamgarh, Bijnor, Najibabad, Rampur, Aligarh, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Badaun, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Gulbarga, Parbhani, Nanded, Kochi, Malegaon, Bidar, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.
The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.

Aurangzeb

AurangazebEmperor AurangzebAurengzeb
By the end of the reign of Aurangzeb in the early 18th century, the common language around Delhi began to be referred to as “Zaban-e-Urdu,” a name derived from the Turkic word ordu (army) or orda and is said to have arisen as the "language of the camp", or "Zaban-i-Ordu" (or natively "Lashkari Zaban").
200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses, and Aurangzeb said:

Persian language in the Indian subcontinent

PersianPersian language in South AsiaMughal literatures
Urdu replaced Persian as the official language in 1835 and was made co-official, along with English.
Persian held official status in the court and the administration within these empires and it heavily influenced many of the local languages, particularly the Urdu dialect of Hindustani.

Mas’hafi

MashafiGhulam Hamdani MushafiGhulam Hamadani Mushafi
The name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780.
(1751–1844), who was a Urdu ghazal poet.)

Nastaʿlīq

NastaliqNastaʿlīq scriptNastaleeq
The Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India.
It is sometimes used to write Arabic-language text (where it is known as Taʿlīq or Persian and is mainly used for titles and headings), but its use has always been more popular in the Persian, Turkic and Urdu sphere of influence.

List of languages by number of native speakers

numbermost spoken languages20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers
According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with approximately 66 million speakers.

Muhajir people

MuhajirsMuhajirMohajir
Although most of the population is conversant in Urdu, it is the first language of only an estimated 7% of the population who are mainly Muslim immigrants (known as Muhajir in Pakistan) from different parts of South Asia.
Although many of them speak different languages at the native level, they are primarily identified as native Urdu speakers and hence are called Urdu-speaking people.

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on Hindustani.
Persian has left a considerable influence on its neighboring languages, including other Iranian languages, the Turkic languages, Armenian, Georgian and the Indo-Aryan languages (especially Urdu).

Daily Jang

JangJang NewsThe Daily Jang (روزنامہ جنگ)
Many newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan#Urdu language newspapers).
The Daily Jang (undefined) is an Urdu newspaper based in Karachi, Pakistan.

Nawa-i-Waqt

NawaiwaqtDaily Nawa-e-WaqtDaily Nawa-i-Waqt
Many newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan#Urdu language newspapers).
Nawa-i-Waqt (undefined, ) is an Urdu daily newspaper in Pakistan.

Jharkhand

Jharkhand StateJharkhand movementJarkhand
In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognised in the Constitution of India, having official status in the five states of Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi.
Jharkhand has accorded second language status to Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Ho, Kharia, Kurukh, Khortha, Kurmali, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali and Urdu.

Karnataka

Karnataka StateKarnataka, IndiaKarnatka
These include parts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra (Marathwada), Karnataka and cities such as Lucknow, Delhi, Bareilly, Meerut, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee, Deoband, Moradabad, Azamgarh, Bijnor, Najibabad, Rampur, Aligarh, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Badaun, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Gulbarga, Parbhani, Nanded, Kochi, Malegaon, Bidar, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.
Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside Urdu, Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary.

List of newspapers in Pakistan

newspapersprint mediajournalism
Many newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan#Urdu language newspapers).

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan.
The Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) is the lingua franca of Pakistan and Northern India.