Urinary tract infection

cystitisurinary tract infectionsbladder infectionurinary tracturinary infectionUTIinfectionurinary infectionsurine infectionbladder infections
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.wikipedia
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Fever

pyrexiafebrileague
Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI.
This includes viral, bacterial and parasitic infections such as the common cold, urinary tract infections, meningitis, malaria and appendicitis among others.

Pyelonephritis

kidney infectionpyelitisurosepsis
When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as a kidney infection (pyelonephritis).
Risk factors include sexual intercourse, prior urinary tract infections, diabetes, structural problems of the urinary tract, and spermicide use.

Nitrofurantoin

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In uncomplicated cases, UTIs are treated with a short course of antibiotics such as nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
It is an antibiotic used to treat bladder infections, but is not as effective for kidney infections.

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazoleco-trimoxazoleBactrim
In uncomplicated cases, UTIs are treated with a short course of antibiotics such as nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
It is used for urinary tract infections, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections, travelers' diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, and cholera, among others.

Urination

urinateurinatingmicturition
Symptoms from a lower urinary tract infection include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder.
Resisting the urge to urinate because of lack of facilities can promote urinary tract infections which can lead to more serious infections and, in rare situations, can cause renal damage in women.

Dysuria

painful urinationburning with urinationpain with urination
The most common symptoms are burning with urination and having to urinate frequently (or an urge to urinate) in the absence of vaginal discharge and significant pain.
It is most often a result of a urinary tract infection.

Phenazopyridine

pyridiumPhenazopyridine hydrochlorideUristat
Phenazopyridine may help with symptoms.
It is often used to help with the pain, irritation, or urgency caused by urinary tract infections, surgery, or injury to the urinary tract.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI.

Pyuria

leukocyturiapus in the urinesterile pyuria
Rarely, the urine may appear bloody or contain visible pus in the urine.
It can be a sign of a bacterial urinary tract infection.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

S. saprophyticusStaphylococcus saprophyticus'' B6
Uropathogenic E. coli from the gut is the cause of 80–85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5–10%.
S. saprophyticus is a common cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections.

Hematuria

blood in the urinehaematuriabloody urine
Rarely, the urine may appear bloody or contain visible pus in the urine. Rarely the urine may appear bloody.

Bacteremia

bacteraemiatoxemiatoxaemia
Kidney infection, if it occurs, usually follows a bladder infection but may also result from a blood-borne infection.
Intravenous catheters, urinary tract infections and surgical wounds are all risk factors for developing bacteremia from enterococcal species.

Enterococcus

enterococcienterococcalEnterococcus faecium
coli (27%), Klebsiella (11%), Pseudomonas (11%), the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (9%), and Enterococcus'' (7%) among others.
Important clinical infections caused by Enterococcus include urinary tract infections (see Enterococcus faecalis), bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, diverticulitis, meningitis, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

Urinary catheterization

urinary cathetercathetercatheterization
Healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (mostly related to urinary catheterization) involve a much broader range of pathogens including: ''E.
Evidence does not support an important decrease in the risk of urinary tract infections when silver-alloy catheters are used.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
Uropathogenic E. coli from the gut is the cause of 80–85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5–10%. The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause.
coli'' strains do not cause disease, naturally living in the gut, but virulent strains can cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, hemorrhagic colitis, and Crohn's disease.

Circumcision

circumcisedmale circumcisioncircumcise
Other risk factors include diabetes, being uncircumcised, and having a large prostate.
Medically it is a treatment option for problematic cases of phimosis, balanoposthitis that does not resolve with other treatments, and chronic urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Klebsiella

Klebsiella aerogenesKlebsiella sp.Klebsiella spp.
coli (27%), Klebsiella (11%), Pseudomonas (11%), the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (9%), and Enterococcus'' (7%) among others.
Klebsiella organisms can lead to a wide range of disease states, notably pneumonia, urinary tract infections, sepsis, meningitis, diarrhea, and soft tissue infections.

Chronic bacterial prostatitis

chronic prostatitis
Chronic prostatitis in the forms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and chronic bacterial prostatitis (not acute bacterial prostatitis or asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis) may cause recurrent urinary tract infections in males.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a relatively rare condition that usually presents with an intermittent UTI-type picture.

Vesicoureteral reflux

Defluxrefluxreflux uropathy
In children UTIs are associated with vesicoureteral reflux (an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation.
Reflux also increases risk of acute bladder and kidney infections, so testing for reflux may be performed after a child has one or more infections.

Urinary bladder

bladderfundusintravesical
In children UTIs are associated with vesicoureteral reflux (an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation.
The modern Latin word for "bladder" – cystis – appears in associated terms such as cystitis (inflammation of the bladder).

Bacteriuria

urine cultureAsymptomatic bacteriuriabacteria in the urine
In complicated cases or if treatment fails, a urine culture may be useful.
Bacteriuria accompanied by symptoms is a urinary tract infection while that without is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria.

Cranberry juice

cranberryjuice
Additionally, use of cranberry juice or cranberry supplement appears to be ineffective in prevention and treatment in this population.
Despite a long-held reputation for providing antibacterial activity against urinary tract infections (UTIs), cranberry juice has no such proven effects, as determined by a Cochrane review of completed clinical research and a scientific panel for the European Food Safety Authority which concluded a cause and effect relationship could not be established between cranberry consumption and risk of UTIs.

Nitrite test

nitritenitrituriaurinary nitrite
In complicated or questionable cases, it may be useful to confirm the diagnosis via urinalysis, looking for the presence of urinary nitrites, white blood cells (leukocytes), or leukocyte esterase.
This test is commonly used in diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Chlamydia trachomatis

C. trachomatischlamydiaC.trachomatis
Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium can infect the urethra but not the bladder.
Often, symptoms are similar to those of a urinary tract infection.

Urine

urinaryhuman urinepiss
In children UTIs are associated with vesicoureteral reflux (an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation.
This odor is not present in fresh urine of healthy individuals; its presence may be a sign of a urinary tract infection.