A report on Use of Sarum

Salisbury Cathedral, which developed the Sarum Use in the Middle Ages.
A page from a Sarum missal. The woodcut shows an altar shortly before the English Reformation.
Illustration from a manuscript on the Sarum Rite, c. 1400

Latin liturgical rite developed at Salisbury Cathedral and used from the late eleventh century until the English Reformation.

- Use of Sarum
Salisbury Cathedral, which developed the Sarum Use in the Middle Ages.

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A 1760 printing of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, printed by John Baskerville

Book of Common Prayer

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Name given to a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion and by other Christian churches historically related to Anglicanism.

Name given to a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion and by other Christian churches historically related to Anglicanism.

A 1760 printing of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, printed by John Baskerville
Thomas Cranmer (1489–1556), editor and co-author of the first and second Books of Common Prayer
Cranmer's prayer book of 1552
Prayer book of 1559
Laud's abortive 1637 Prayer book.
Title page of the 1662 Prayer Book
A Collect for 5 November in the Book of Common Prayer published in London in 1689, referring to the Gunpowder Plot and the arrival of William III.
Edward Bouverie Pusey, a leader of the Oxford Movement.
A collection of various editions of the Book of Common Prayer, derivatives, and associated liturgical texts from within the Anglican Communion, Catholic Church, and Western Rite Orthodoxy.
Philippine Book of Common Prayer in the Church of Saint Mary, Sagada, Mountain Province, Philippines.
The diglotic English–Chinese Book of Common Prayer used by the Filipino–Chinese community of St Stephen's Pro-Cathedral in Manila, Philippines.
The 1979 Book of Common Prayer
Anglo-Catholic Anglican Service Book (1991), a traditional-language version of the Episcopal Book of Common Prayer
The Revised Prayer-Book of the Reformed Spanish Church, English translation of the 1889 revised Prayer Book used in the Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church.
The 1878 prayer book for the use of the Church of Ireland.
The first Book of Common Prayer in Welsh published in 1567

By far the most common form, or "use", found in Southern England was that of Sarum (Salisbury).

The Missal, 1902 by John William Waterhouse

Missal

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Liturgical book containing instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the liturgical year.

Liturgical book containing instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the liturgical year.

The Missal, 1902 by John William Waterhouse
A page from the Sherbrooke Missal, one of the earliest surviving missals of English origin
The Anglican Missal sitting on an altar desk in an Anglican parish church
Excerpt from the Missal of the Sint-Pieters abbey (Ghent), manufactured in the 13th century. Manuscript preserved in the Ghent University Library.

The Roman Missal (Missale Romanum), published by Pope Pius V in 1570, eventually replaced the widespread use of different missal traditions by different parts of the church, such as those of Troyes, Sarum (Salisbury), and others.

King Henry VIII of England by Hans Holbein the Younger. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.

English Reformation

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The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England when the Church of England broke away from the authority of the pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England when the Church of England broke away from the authority of the pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

King Henry VIII of England by Hans Holbein the Younger. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.
The Tyndale Bible was the basis for later English translations.
Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII's first wife. Attributed to Joannes Corvus, National Portrait Gallery, London.
Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII's second wife, by an unknown artist. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex (c. 1485–1540), Henry VIII's chief minister 1532–40.
Thomas More, with John Fisher the leader of political resistance against the break with Rome. Both were executed in 1535.
St Paul's Cross (in the lower left corner of the painting) was a prominent preaching cross on the grounds of Old St Paul's Cathedral.
Remains of Finchale Priory, a Benedictine monastery near Durham that was closed in 1535
The chapter house of Forde Abbey, a Cistercian monastery closed in 1539 and converted into a country house
The 14th-century Chantry Chapel of St Mary the Virgin in Wakefield, West Yorkshire. Chantries were endowments that paid priests to say masses for the dead to lessen their time in purgatory.
King Edward VI of England, in whose reign the reform of the English Church moved in a more Protestant direction
This statue in the Lady Chapel of Ely Cathedral was vandalized during the Reformation.
Title page of the 1549 Book of Common Prayer
Edward VI and the Pope: An Allegory of the Reformation. This Elizabethan work of propaganda depicts the handing over of power from Henry VIII, who lies dying in bed, to Edward VI, seated beneath a cloth of state with a slumping pope at his feet. In the top right of the picture is an image of men pulling down and smashing idols. At Edward's side are his uncle the Lord Protector Edward Seymour and members of the Privy Council.
Thomas Cranmer (1489–1556), Henry VIII's Archbishop of Canterbury and editor and co-author of the first and second Books of Common Prayer.
Queen Mary I of England restored the English allegiance to Rome.
Cardinal Reginald Pole presided over the English Church's reconciliation with Rome
Conservative Bishop Edmund Bonner
Westminster Abbey was one of seven monasteries re-founded during the Marian Restoration.
Frontispiece of John Foxe's Book of Martyrs
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Polemical popular print with a Catalogue of Sects, 1647.

It replaced the several regional Latin rites then in use, such as the Use of Sarum, the Use of York and the Use of Hereford with an English-language liturgy.

Jesus Christ supporting an English flag and staff in the crook of his right arm depicted in a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent

Anglicanism

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Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation, in the context of the Protestant Reformation in Europe.

Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation, in the context of the Protestant Reformation in Europe.

Jesus Christ supporting an English flag and staff in the crook of his right arm depicted in a stained glass window in Rochester Cathedral, Kent
Saint Alban is venerated as the first-recorded British Christian martyr.
Augustine of Canterbury was the first Archbishop of Canterbury.
Queen Elizabeth I revived the Church of England in 1559, and established a uniform faith and practice. She took the title "Supreme Governor".
Frederick Denison Maurice was a prominent 19th-century Anglican theologian
Richard Hooker (1554–1600), one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity.
Thomas Cranmer wrote the first two editions of the BCP
An eastward-facing Solemn High Mass, a Catholic liturgical phenomenon which re-emerged in Anglicanism following the Catholic Revival of the 19th century
The 1596 Book of Common Prayer
Evensong at York Minster
The Arms of the See of Canterbury.
A priest in Eucharistic vestments.
The vestments of a deacon, including a stole over the left shoulder.
A world map showing the Provinces of the Anglican Communion (Blue). Shown are the Churches in full communion with the Anglican Church: The Nordic Lutheran churches of the Porvoo Communion (Green), and the Old Catholic Churches in the Utrecht Union (Red).
1854 image of the ruins of Jamestown Church, the first Anglican church in North America
High altar at the Anglo-Catholic Church of the Good Shepherd (Rosemont, Pennsylvania)
Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin
Justin Welby in South Korea. As the Archbishop of Canterbury, Welby is the symbolic head of the international Anglican Communion.

The Elizabethan church began to develop distinct religious traditions, assimilating some of the theology of Reformed churches with the services in the Book of Common Prayer (which drew extensively on the Sarum Rite native to England), under the leadership and organisation of a continuing episcopate.

Examples of Western Rite Orthodox liturgical books from several groups.

Western Rite Orthodoxy

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Western Rite Orthodoxy, also called Western Orthodoxy or the Orthodox Western Rite, are congregations within the Eastern Orthodox tradition which perform their liturgy in Western forms.

Western Rite Orthodoxy, also called Western Orthodoxy or the Orthodox Western Rite, are congregations within the Eastern Orthodox tradition which perform their liturgy in Western forms.

Examples of Western Rite Orthodox liturgical books from several groups.

Besides altered versions of the Tridentine Mass, congregations have used Western liturgical forms such as the Sarum Rite, the Mozarabic Rite, and Gallican Rite.

Saint Peter's Basilica, in Rome, Italy

Latin liturgical rites

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Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church, the largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, that originated in Europe where the Latin language once dominated.

Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church, the largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, that originated in Europe where the Latin language once dominated.

Saint Peter's Basilica, in Rome, Italy

Anglican liturgical rituals, whether those used in the ordinariates of the Catholic Church or in the various prayer books and missals of the Anglican Communion and other denominations, trace their origin back to the Sarum Use, which was a variation of the Roman Rite used in England before introduction during the reign of Edward VI of the 1549 Book of Common Prayer, following the break from the Roman church under the previous monarch Henry VIII.

Breviary of Beatrice van Assendelft, 1485

Canonical hours

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In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of fixed times of prayer at regular intervals.

In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of fixed times of prayer at regular intervals.

Breviary of Beatrice van Assendelft, 1485
Traditionally, Christian monastics prayed the Divine Office in the quire of the church.
Benedictine monks singing Vespers
The Agpeya is a breviary used in Oriental Orthodox Christianity to pray the canonical hours at fixed prayer times during the day.
The Shehimo is a breviary used in Indian Orthodoxy and Syriac Orthodoxy to pray the canonical hours at fixed prayer times during the day while facing in the eastward direction.
For All The Saints breviary, used in the Lutheran Churches, in four volumes
The Anglican Rosary sitting atop The Anglican Breviary and the Book of Common Prayer
A Lukan Book of Hours (in purple) and The Book of Offices and Services (in red), both liturgical texts of The Order of Saint Luke, a Methodist religious order

Some Anglo-Catholics use the Anglican Breviary, an adaptation of the Pre-Vatican II Roman Rite and the Sarum Rite in the style of Cranmer's original Book of Common Prayer, along with supplemental material from other western sources, including a common of Octaves, a common of Holy Women, and other material.

A reconstruction of Old Sarum in the 12th century, housed at Salisbury Cathedral

Old Sarum

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Now ruined and deserted site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury.

Now ruined and deserted site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury.

A reconstruction of Old Sarum in the 12th century, housed at Salisbury Cathedral
An 1829 sketch of Old Sarum by John Constable, displaying the site of the abandoned hillfort
A 1916 plan of Old Sarum by the Ordnance Survey (300 ft ≈ 92 m)
Aerial view of Old Sarum
The present ruins: the exposed foundations of the cathedral in the foreground and the Norman central motte behind
The exposed foundations of the cathedral

Osmund was a cousin of William the Conqueror and Lord Chancellor of England; he was responsible for the codification of the Sarum Rite, the compilation of the Domesday Book, and—after centuries of advocacy from Salisbury's bishops—was finally canonized by Pope Callixtus III in 1457.

Manuscript of the Introit of the Mass (Florence, Italy).

Liturgical book

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Book published by the authority of a church body that contains the text and directions for the liturgy of its official religious services.

Book published by the authority of a church body that contains the text and directions for the liturgy of its official religious services.

Manuscript of the Introit of the Mass (Florence, Italy).
Excerpt from the missal, a liturgical book, of the Sint-Pieters abbey (Ghent), manufactured in the 13th century. Manuscript preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Early 16th-century choirbook with Josquin's Missa de Beata Virgine (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, MS Cappella Sistina 45, folios 1v–2r.).
A decorative 14th century Missal of English origin, F. 1r. Sherbrooke Missal
An altar server holds the Chinovnik for an Orthodox bishop during divine services.
Coptic lectionary with Bohairic script on the left hand of the page and Arabic on the right.
Armenian liturgical manuscript, 13th century, Kilikia.

In the late 1800s, as part of the Anglo-Catholic movement, the Anglican Missal was published, to provide a particular way, drawn from the Sarum Use, of celebrating the Eucharist according to Anglican liturgical tradition.

Saint Osmund

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Norman noble and clergyman.

Norman noble and clergyman.

Saint Osmond

Third was the formation of the "Sarum Use."