A report on Usenet

A diagram of Usenet servers and clients. The blue, green, and red dots on the servers represent the groups they carry. Arrows between servers indicate newsgroup group exchanges (feeds). Arrows between clients and servers indicate that a user is subscribed to a certain group and reads or submits articles.
Usenet Provider Map
The "Big Nine" hierarchies of Usenet
A visual example of the many complex steps required to prepare data to be uploaded to Usenet newsgroups. These steps must be done again in reverse to download data from Usenet.
October 2020 screenshot showing 60 PB of usenet group data.

Worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.

- Usenet
A diagram of Usenet servers and clients. The blue, green, and red dots on the servers represent the groups they carry. Arrows between servers indicate newsgroup group exchanges (feeds). Arrows between clients and servers indicate that a user is subscribed to a certain group and reads or submits articles.

57 related topics with Alpha

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The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

Internet

7 links

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 0.9, the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the first Web browser (which was also a HTML editor and could access Usenet newsgroups and FTP files), the first HTTP server software (later known as CERN httpd), the first web server, and the first Web pages that described the project itself.

The Wikipedia Village Pump is a forum used to discuss improvements on Wikipedia

Internet forum

6 links

Online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

Online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.

The Wikipedia Village Pump is a forum used to discuss improvements on Wikipedia
An Internet forum powered by phpBB
FUDforum, another Internet forum software package
Internet forums are used frequently in conjunction with multiplayer online games.

Early Internet forums could be described as a web version of an electronic mailing list or newsgroup (such as exist on Usenet); allowing people to post messages and comment on other messages.

Business card with UUCP email address

UUCP

7 links

Acronym of Unix-to-Unix Copy.

Acronym of Unix-to-Unix Copy.

Business card with UUCP email address

The term generally refers to a suite of computer programs and protocols allowing remote execution of commands and transfer of files, email and netnews between computers.

October 2020 screenshot showing 60 PB of usenet group data

Usenet newsgroup

5 links

October 2020 screenshot showing 60 PB of usenet group data

A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from users in different locations using the Internet.

Network News Transfer Protocol

5 links

The Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) is an application protocol used for transporting Usenet news articles (netnews) between news servers, and for reading/posting articles by the end user client applications.

The historic World Wide Web logo, designed by Robert Cailliau.

World Wide Web

4 links

Information system enabling documents and other web resources to be accessed over the Internet.

Information system enabling documents and other web resources to be accessed over the Internet.

The historic World Wide Web logo, designed by Robert Cailliau.
A web page displayed in a web browser
A global map of the Web Index for countries in 2014
This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
The World Wide Web functions as an application layer protocol that is run "on top of" (figuratively) the Internet, helping to make it more functional. The advent of the Mosaic web browser helped to make the web much more usable, to include the display of images and moving images (GIFs).
Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinks
A screenshot of a web page on Wikimedia Commons
Dynamic web page: example of server-side scripting (PHP and MySQL)
The usap.gov website
The inside and front of a Dell PowerEdge web server, a computer designed for rack mounting
Multiple web servers may be used for a high traffic website; here, Dell servers are installed together to be used for the Wikimedia Foundation.
The results of a search for the term "lunar eclipse" in a web-based image search engine

The hostname of a web server is often www, in the same way that it may be ftp for an FTP server, and news or nntp for a Usenet news server.

The Deja News logo as it appeared in 1997

Google Groups

3 links

Service from Google that provides discussion groups for people sharing common interests.

Service from Google that provides discussion groups for people sharing common interests.

The Deja News logo as it appeared in 1997
The deja.com logo used from 1999

The Groups service also provides a gateway to Usenet newsgroups via a shared user interface.

A welcome screen for the Free-net bulletin board, from 1994

Bulletin board system

5 links

Computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program.

Computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program.

A welcome screen for the Free-net bulletin board, from 1994
Ward Christensen holds an expansion card from the original CBBS S-100 host machine.
The 300 baud Smartmodem led to an initial wave of early BBS systems.
Amiga 3000 running a two-line BBS
Welcome screen of Neon#2 BBS (Tornado)
BBS ANSI Login Screen example

Some even provided gateways, such as UFGATE, by which members could send and receive e-mail to and from the Internet via UUCP, and many FidoNet discussion groups were shared via gateway to Usenet.

Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs

Internet service provider

5 links

Organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.

Organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.

Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs
Stealth Communications in Manhattan installing fiber for provisioning Internet access
Tiers 1 and 2 ISP interconnections

Internet services typically provided by ISPs can include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation.

Social media app icons on a smartphone

Social media

3 links

Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks.

Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks.

Social media app icons on a smartphone
SixDegrees, launched in 1997, is often regarded as the first social media site.

This became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, and established in 1980.