Uterus

Image showing different structures around and relating to the human uterus
Different regions of Uterus displayed & labelled using a 3D medical animation still shot
Diagram showing regions of the uterus
Uterus covered by the broad ligament
Schematic diagram of uterine arterial vasculature seen as a cross-section through the myometrium and endometrium
Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view
Transvaginal ultrasonography showing a uterine fluid accumulation in a postmenopausal woman.
Vertical section of mucous membrane of human uterus
Schematic frontal view of female anatomy
Sectional plan of the gravid uterus in the third and fourth month
Fetus in utero, between fifth and sixth months.
Female pelvis and its contents, seen from above and in front
The arteries of the internal organs of generation of the female, seen from behind
Median sagittal section of female pelvis
(Description located on [[:File:Illu female pelvis.jpg|image page]])
Uterus

For other uses of "Womb", see Womb (disambiguation).

- Uterus

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Female reproductive system

[[Image:Scheme female reproductive system-number-full-cropped.svg|thumb|300px|

A pictorial illustration of the female reproductive system.
Sagittal MRI showing the location of the vagina, cervix, and uterus
Illustration depicting female reproductive system (sagittal view)
Frontal view as scheme of reproductive organs

14. Uterus:

Gestation

Period of development during the carrying of an embryo, and later fetus, inside viviparous animals .

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Timeline of human fertilization
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In mammals, pregnancy begins when a zygote (fertilized ovum) implants in the female's uterus and ends once the fetus leaves the uterus during labor or an abortion (whether induced or spontaneous).

Embryo

Early stage of development of a multicellular organism.

A male human embryo, seven weeks old
or nine weeks' gestational age
Embryos (and one tadpole) of the wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa)
The inside of a Ginkgo seed, showing the embryo
Mouse and snake embryos

The mammalian blastocyst hatches before implanting into the endometrial lining of the womb.

Human embryonic development

Development and formation of the human embryo.

The initial stages of human embryonic development (embryogenesis)
8-cell embryo, at 3 days
Blastocyst with an inner cell mass and trophoblast.
Trophoblast differentiation
Histogenesis of the three germ layers
Artificially colored – gestational sac, yolk sac and embryo (measuring 3 mm at 5 weeks)
Embryo attached to placenta in amniotic cavity
Neural plate
Neural tube development
9 weeks old human embryo from an ectopic pregnancy
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Development of brain in 8-week-old embryo
Movements of embryo at 9 weeks gestational age.
Representing different stages of embryogenesis
Early stage of the gastrulation process
Phase of the gastrulation process
Top of the form of the embryo
Establishment of embryo medium
Spinal cord at 5 weeks
Head and neck at 32 days

The germinal stage refers to the time from fertilization through the development of the early embryo until implantation is completed in the uterus.

Endometrium

Uterus and uterine tubes. (Endometrium labeled at center right.)
Histology of the most superficial layer of the endometrium, consisting of a simple columnar epithelium. H&E stain
High magnification micrograph of decidualized endometrium due to exogenous progesterone (oral contraceptive pill). H&E stain
Low magnification micrograph of decidualized endometrium. H&E stain
Histopathologic and cytopathologic images. (A) proliferative endometrium (Left: HE × 400) and proliferative endometrial cells (Right: HE × 100) (B) secretory endometrium (Left: HE × 10) and secretory endometrial cells (Right: HE × 10) (C) atrophic endometrium (Left: HE × 10) and atrophic endometrial cells (Right: HE × 10) (D) mixed endometrium (Left: HE × 10) and mixed endometrial cells (Right: HE × 10) (E): endometrial atypical hyperplasia (Left: HE × 10) and endometrial atypical cells (Right: HE × 200) (F) endometrial carcinoma (Left: HE × 400) and endometrial cancer cells (Right: HE × 400).
Triple-line endometrium measuring 7mm.
Endometrioid adenocarcinoma from biopsy. H&E stain.
Micrograph of decidualized endometrium due to exogenous progesterone. H&E stain.
Micrograph of decidualized endometrium due to exogenous progesterone. H&E stain.
Micrograph showing endometrial stromal condensation, a finding seen in menses.

The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.

Menstrual cycle

Menstrual cycle
Progression of the menstrual cycle and some of the hormones contributing to it
An ovary about to release an egg
The anatomy of the uterus
During the menstrual cycle, levels of estradiol (an estrogen) vary by 200 percent. Levels of progesterone vary by over 1200 percent.
A human primary ovarian follicle viewed by microscopy. The round oocyte stained red in the center is surrounded by a layer of granulosa cells, which are enveloped by the basement membrane and theca cells. The magnification is around 1000 times. (H&E stain)

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes in hormone production and the structures of the uterus and ovaries of the female reproductive system that make pregnancy possible.

Pregnancy

A woman in the third trimester of pregnancy
William Hunter, Anatomia uteri humani gravidi tabulis illustrata, 1774
Melasma: pigment changes to the face due to pregnancy
In the later part of pregnancy the uterus takes up much of the abdomen
Timeline of pregnancy, including (from top to bottom): Trimesters, embryo/fetus development, gestational age in weeks and months, viability and maturity stages
Distribution of gestational age at childbirth among singleton live births, given both when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound and directly by last menstrual period. Roughly 80% of births occur between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age.
Fertilization and implantation in humans
The initial stages of human embryogenesis
Breast changes as seen during pregnancy. The areolae are larger and darker.
The uterus as it changes in size over the duration of the trimesters
By the end of the second trimester, the expanding uterus has created a visible "baby bump". Although the breasts have been developing internally since the beginning of the pregnancy, most of the visible changes appear after this point.
Pregnant woman in third trimester of pregnancy (last month)
The uterus expands making up a larger and larger portion of the woman's abdomen. At left anterior view with months labeled, at right lateral view labeling the last 4 weeks. During the final stages of gestation before childbirth the fetus and uterus will drop to a lower position.
Linea nigra in a woman at 22 weeks pregnant.
CT scanning (volume rendered in this case) confers a radiation dose to the developing fetus.
A pregnant woman undergoing an ultrasound. Ultrasound is used to check on the growth and development of the fetus.
Giotto di Bondone Visitation, circa 1305
Embryo at 4 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 6 weeks)
Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 10 weeks)
Fetus at 18 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 20 weeks)
Fetus at 38 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 40 weeks)
Relative size in 1st month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 3rd month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 5th month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 9th month (simplified illustration)
Anatomical model of a pregnant woman; Stephan Zick (1639–1715); 1700; Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Statue of a pregnant woman, Macedonia
Bronze figure of a pregnant naked woman by Danny Osborne, Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland
Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger Portrait of Susanna Temple, second wife of Sir Martin Lister, 1620
Octave Tassaert, The Waif aka L'abandonnée 1852, Musée Fabre, Montpellier

Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman's womb.

Fetus

Unborn offspring that develops from an animal embryo.

A human fetus, attached to placenta, at three months gestational age.
Diagram of the human fetal circulatory system.
Fourteen phases of elephant development before birth
Fetal stage of a porpoise
3D ultrasound of {{convert|3|in|mm|-1|adj=on|order=flip}} fetus (about {{frac|3|1|2}} months gestational age)
Fetus at {{frac|4|1|4}} months
Fetus at 5 months

Maternal factors include maternal weight, body mass index, nutritional state, emotional stress, toxin exposure (including tobacco, alcohol, heroin, and other drugs which can also harm the fetus in other ways), and uterine blood flow.

Cervix

The human female reproductive system. The cervix is the lower narrower portion of the uterus.
Diagram of the uterus and part of the vagina. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus situated between the external os (external orifice) and internal os (internal orifice). The cervical canal connects the interior of the vagina and the cavity of the body of uterus.
A normal cervix of an adult viewed using a bivalved vaginal speculum. The functional squamocolumnar junction surrounds the external os and is visible as the irregular demarcation between the lighter and darker shades of pink mucosa.
A nulliparous woman's ectocervix showing cervical ectropion, visible as the darker red mucosa surrounding the cervical os. Viewed on speculum exam
When the head of the fetus pushes against the cervix, a signal (2) is sent to the brain. This causes a signal to be sent to the pituitary gland to release oxytocin (4). Oxytocin is carried in the bloodstream to the uterus, causing contractions to induce childbirth.
The squamocolumnar junction of the cervix, with abrupt transition: The ectocervix, with its stratified squamous epithelium, is visible on the left. Simple columnar epithelium, typical of the endocervix, is visible on the right. A layer of connective tissue is visible under both types of epithelium.
Transformation zone types:<ref>International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy (IFCPC) classification. References: -{{cite web|url=https://www.rcpa.edu.au/Library/Practising-Pathology/Structured-Pathology-Reporting-of-Cancer/Docs/Transformation_zone|title=Transformation zone (TZ) and cervical excision types|website=Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia}} - {{cite journal|last1=Jordan|first1=J.|last2=Arbyn|first2=M.|last3=Martin-Hirsch|first3=P.|last4=Schenck|first4=U.|last5=Baldauf|first5=J-J.|last6=Da Silva|first6=D.|last7=Anttila|first7=A.|last8=Nieminen|first8=P.|last9=Prendiville|first9=W.|title=European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for clinical management of abnormal cervical cytology, part 1|journal=Cytopathology|volume=19|issue=6|year=2008|pages=342–354|issn=0956-5507|doi=10.1111/j.1365-2303.2008.00623.x|pmid=19040546|s2cid=16462929|doi-access=free}}</ref> Type 1: Completely ectocervical (common under hormonal influence). Type 2: Endocervical component but fully visible (common before puberty). Type 3: Endocervical component, not fully visible (common after menopause).

The cervix or cervix uteri (Latin, 'neck of the uterus') is the lower part of the uterus (womb) in the human female reproductive system.

Placenta

Temporary fetal organ that begins developing from the blastocyst shortly after implantation.

Placenta
Placenta
The initial stages of human embryogenesis.
Maternal blood fills the intervillous space, nutrients, water, and gases are actively and passively exchanged, then deoxygenated blood is displaced by the next maternal pulse.
Animated schematic of the hearts and circulatory systems of a fetus and its mother &ndash; red and blue represent oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, respectively [ (animation)]
Ultrasound image of human placenta and umbilical cord (color Doppler rendering) with central cord insertion and three umbilical vessels, at 20 weeks of pregnancy
Micrograph of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the placenta (CMV placentitis). The characteristic large nucleus of a CMV-infected cell is seen off-centre at the bottom-right of the image. H&E stain.
Fetus of about 8 weeks, enclosed in the amnion. Magnified a little over two diameters.
Placenta with attached fetal membranes, ruptured at the margin at the left in the image.
Micrograph of a placental infection (CMV placentitis).
Micrograph of CMV placentitis.
A 3D Power doppler image of vasculature in 20-week placenta
Schematic view of the placenta
Maternal side of a whole human placenta, just after birth
Fetal side of same placenta
Close-up of umbilical attachment to fetal side of freshly delivered placenta
Placenta weight by gestational age<ref>{{cite book |doi=10.1017/9781316848616.039 |chapter=Placental Weights: Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles by Gestational Age |title=Placental and Gestational Pathology |year=2017 |page=336 |isbn=978-1-316-84861-6 }}</ref>
Ziheche (紫河车), dried human placenta used in traditional Chinese medicine

The placenta connects to the fetus via the umbilical cord, and on the opposite aspect to the maternal uterus in a species dependent manner.