Utopian socialism

utopian socialistutopian socialistsutopiansocialist utopiautopianismearly socialist movementEarly socialistsProto-socialismreformist socialismutopian Communist
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.wikipedia
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Charles Fourier

FourierFourieristFrançois Marie Charles Fourier
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen. Charles Fourier (1772–1837) rejected the industrial revolution altogether and thus the problems that arose with it.
François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker and one of the founders of utopian socialism.

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would later be labelled "utopian socialism".

Robert Owen

OwenOweniteMr Owen
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
Robert Owen (14 May 1771 – 17 November 1858), a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one founder of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement, is best known for efforts to improve working conditions for his factory workers and his promotion of experimental socialistic communities.

Communalism

communalistcommunalcommunal ownership
The term was used by later socialist thinkers to describe early socialist or quasi-socialist intellectuals who created hypothetical visions of egalitarian, communalist, meritocratic, or other notions of "perfect" societies without considering how these societies could be created or sustained.
Many historical communities practicing utopian socialism or anarcho-communism did implement internal rules of communalist property ownership in the context of federated communalism.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were the first thinkers to refer to them as "utopian", referring to all socialist ideas that simply presented a vision and distant goal of an ethically just society as utopian. His ideas influenced Auguste Comte (who was, for a time, Saint-Simon's secretary), Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and many other thinkers and social theorists.
Based in Paris, the paper was connected to the League of the Just, a utopian socialist secret society of workers and artisans.

Ethical socialism

ethical socialistethical doctrineethical
A similar school of thought that emerged in the early 20th century is ethical socialism, which makes the case for socialism on moral grounds.
The Utopian socialists, one of the first currents of modern socialist thought, presented visions and outlines for imaginary or futuristic ideal societies, characterized by the establishment of a moral economy, with positive ideals based on moral and ethical grounds being the main reason for moving society in such a direction.

Fourierism

FourieristFourieristsAssociationism
Currents like Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism attracted the interest of numerous later authors but failed to compete with the now dominant Marxist, Proudhonist, or Leninist schools on a political level.
Political contemporaries and subsequent scholarship has identified Fourier's set of ideas as a form of utopian socialisma phrase which retains mild pejorative overtones.

The Communist Manifesto

Communist ManifestoManifesto of the Communist PartyThe Manifesto of the Communist Party
The term "utopian socialism" was introduced by Karl Marx in "For a Ruthless Criticism of Everything" in 1843 (and then developed in The Communist Manifesto in 1848), although shortly before its publication Marx had already attacked the ideas of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in Das Elend der Philosophie (originally written in French, 1847).
The third section, "Socialist and Communist Literature", distinguishes communism from other socialist doctrines prevalent at the time—these being broadly categorised as Reactionary Socialism; Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism; and Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism.

Henri de Saint-Simon

Saint-SimonClaude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-SimonComte de Saint-Simon
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
Saint Simon's conceptual recognition of broad socio-economic contribution, and his Enlightenment valorization of scientific knowledge, soon inspired and influenced utopian socialism, liberal political theorist John Stuart Mill, anarchism through its founder Pierre-Joseph Proudhon who was inspired by Saint-Simon's thought and Marxism with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels identifying Saint-Simon as an inspiration to their ideas and classifying him among the utopian socialists.

Auguste Comte

ComteComteanAuguste Compte
His ideas influenced Auguste Comte (who was, for a time, Saint-Simon's secretary), Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and many other thinkers and social theorists.
Influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences.

Owenism

OweniteOwenitesOwenist
He also set up an Owenite commune called New Harmony in Indiana.
Owenism is the utopian socialist philosophy of 19th-century social reformer Robert Owen and his followers and successors, who are known as Owenites.

Scientific socialism

scientific socialistsocialismScientific
This utopian mindset which held an integrated conception of the goal, the means to produce said goal and an understanding of the way that those means would inevitably be produced through examining social and economic phenomena can be contrasted with scientific socialism, which has been likened to Taylorism.
It is in contrast to what later socialists referred to as Utopian socialism—a method based on establishing seemingly rational propositions for organizing society and convincing others of their rationality and/or desirability.

Albert Brisbane

Several colonies based on Fourier's ideas were founded in the United States by Albert Brisbane and Horace Greeley.
Albert Brisbane (August 22, 1809 – May 1, 1890) was an American utopian socialist and is remembered as the chief popularizer of the theories of Charles Fourier in the United States.

Feminism

feministfeministsemancipation of women
Also a contributor to feminism, Fourier invented the concept of phalanstère, units of people based on a theory of passions and of their combination.
Charles Fourier, a utopian socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837.

Jeremy Bentham

BenthamBenthamiteBentham, Jeremy
His reputation grew when he set up a textile factory in New Lanark, Scotland, co-funded by his teacher, the utilitarian Jeremy Bentham and introduced shorter working hours, schools for children and renovated housing.
Bentham's students included his secretary and collaborator James Mill, the latter's son, John Stuart Mill, the legal philosopher John Austin, as well as Robert Owen, one of the founders of utopian socialism.

News from Nowhere

Nowhere
William Morris (1834–1896) published News from Nowhere in 1890, partly as a response to Bellamy's Looking Backwards, which he equated with the socialism of Fabians such as Sydney Webb.
News from Nowhere (1890) is a classic work combining utopian socialism and soft science fiction written by the artist, designer and socialist pioneer William Morris.

Spiritualism

spiritualistSpiritualistsspiritual
It has been noted that they exerted a significant influence on the emergence of new religious movements such as spiritualism and occultism.
In 1854 the utopian socialist Robert Owen was converted to Spiritualism after "sittings" with the American medium Maria B. Hayden (credited with introducing Spiritualism to England); Owen made a public profession of his new faith in his publication The Rational quarterly review and later wrote a pamphlet, ''The future of the Human race; or great glorious and future revolution to be effected through the agency of departed spirits of good and superior men and women.

Socialism: Utopian and Scientific

This distinction was made clear in Engels' work Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1892, part of an earlier publication, the Anti-Dühring from 1878).
The book explains the differences between utopian socialism and scientific socialism, which Marxism considers itself to embody.

Looking Backward

Looking Backward: 2000-1887Looking Backward: 2000–1887Looking Backward, 2000-1887
Edward Bellamy (1850–1898) published Looking Backward in 1888, a utopian romance novel about a future socialist society.
Edward Bellamy (1850–1898), a relatively unknown New England-born novelist with a history of concern with social issues, began to conceive of writing an impactful work of visionary fiction shaping the outlines of a utopian future, in which production and society were ordered for the smooth production and distribution of commodities to a regimented labor force.

Occult

occultismoccultistoccultists
It has been noted that they exerted a significant influence on the emergence of new religious movements such as spiritualism and occultism.
In his work about Lévi, the German historian Julian Strube has argued that the occultist wish for a "synthesis" of religion, science, and philosophy directly resulted from the context of contemporary socialism and progressive Catholicism.

New Lanark

LanarkOwen
His reputation grew when he set up a textile factory in New Lanark, Scotland, co-funded by his teacher, the utilitarian Jeremy Bentham and introduced shorter working hours, schools for children and renovated housing.
New Lanark, with its social and welfare programmes, epitomised his Utopian socialism (see also Owenism).

Étienne Cabet

Etienne CabetCabet
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
Étienne Cabet (January 1, 1788 – November 9, 1856) was a French philosopher and utopian socialist who founded the Icarian movement.

North American Phalanx

The North American Phalanx was a secular utopian socialist commune located in Colts Neck Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey.

John Humphrey Noyes

John H. NoyesNoyes
John Humphrey Noyes (September 3, 1811 – April 13, 1886) was an American preacher, radical religious philosopher, and utopian socialist.

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial era
Charles Fourier (1772–1837) rejected the industrial revolution altogether and thus the problems that arose with it.
One of the earliest such reformers was Robert Owen, known for his pioneering efforts in improving conditions for workers at the New Lanark mills, and often regarded as one of the key thinkers of the early socialist movement.