Václav Havel

Vaclav HavelHavelPresident HavelCzech President of the same nameCzech Republicformer philosopher-presidentPresident Václav Havel
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.wikipedia
934 Related Articles

Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism

Prague ProcessPrague DeclarationEuropean Conscience and Communism
Havel continued his life as a public intellectual after his presidency, launching several initiatives including the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, the VIZE 97 Foundation, and the Forum 2000 annual conference.
The Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (also known as the Prague Declaration), which was signed on 3 June 2008, was a declaration initiated by the Czech government and signed by prominent European politicians, former political prisoners and historians, among them former Czech President Václav Havel and future German President Joachim Gauck, which called for "Europe-wide condemnation of, and education about, the crimes of communism."

Theatre of the Absurd

absurdisttheater of the absurdabsurd
In works such as The Garden Party and The Memorandum, Havel used an absurdist style to criticize communism.
Playwrights commonly associated with the Theatre of the Absurd include Samuel Beckett, Eugène Ionesco, Jean Genet, Arthur Adamov, Harold Pinter, Luigi Pirandello, Tom Stoppard, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Miguel Mihura, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Fernando Arrabal, Václav Havel, Edward Albee, Malay Roy Choudhury, Tadeusz Różewicz, Sławomir Mrożek, N.F. Simpson, and Badal Sarkar.

List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia

PresidentPresident of CzechoslovakiaPresidents
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
The last living former President of Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel, died in 2011.

Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
After participating in the Prague Spring and being blacklisted after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, he became more politically active and helped found several dissident initiatives, including Charter 77 and the Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted.
The Prague Spring inspired music and literature including the work of Václav Havel, Karel Husa, Karel Kryl and Milan Kundera's novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being.

Czechs

CzechBohemianCzech people
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
Another notable politician after the fall of the communist regime is Václav Havel, last President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

List of Presidents of the Czech Republic

President of the Czech RepublicPresidentCzech President
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
The first President of the Czech Republic was Václav Havel.

Forum 2000

Havel continued his life as a public intellectual after his presidency, launching several initiatives including the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, the VIZE 97 Foundation, and the Forum 2000 annual conference.
The Forum 2000 Foundation was founded in 1996 as a joint initiative of the Czech President Václav Havel, Japanese philanthropist Yohei Sasakawa, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel.

Four Freedoms Award

Freedom medalFour Freedoms LaureateFreedom From Fear Award
He received numerous accolades during his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Gandhi Peace Prize, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, the Order of Canada, the Four Freedoms Award, the Ambassador of Conscience Award, and the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion
After participating in the Prague Spring and being blacklisted after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, he became more politically active and helped found several dissident initiatives, including Charter 77 and the Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted.
The Prague Spring inspired music and literature such as the work of Václav Havel, Karel Husa, Karel Kryl, and Milan Kundera's novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being.

The Garden Party (play)

The Garden PartyThe Garden Party'' (play)
In works such as The Garden Party and The Memorandum, Havel used an absurdist style to criticize communism.
The Garden Party is a 1963 play by Václav Havel.

Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

dissolutionVelvet Divorcebreakup
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003. Despite increasing political tensions between the Czechs and the Slovaks in 1992, Havel supported the retention of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic prior to the dissolution of the country.
Czechoslovak president Václav Havel resigned rather than oversee the dissolution which he had opposed; in a September 1992 opinion poll, only 37% of Slovaks and 36% of Czechs favoured dissolution.

Olga Havlová

Olga Šplíchalová
On July 9, 1964, Havel married Olga Šplíchalová.
Olga Havlová, born Šplíchalová (11 July 1933 in Prague – 27 January 1996 in Prague) was the first wife of Václav Havel, the last President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

Civic Forum

OFCivic Forum (OF)
Havel's Civic Forum party played a major role in the Velvet Revolution that toppled communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989.
Playwright Václav Havel, its leader and founder, was elected president on December 29, 1989.

Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award

He received numerous accolades during his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Gandhi Peace Prize, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, the Order of Canada, the Four Freedoms Award, the Ambassador of Conscience Award, and the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award.
Václav Havel grew up in a circle which maintained Czechoslovakia's independent culture in defiance of the Communist regime of the time.

The Power of the Powerless

He was known for his essays, most particularly The Power of the Powerless, in which he described a societal paradigm in which citizens were forced to "live within a lie" under the communist regime.
The Power of the Powerless (Moc bezmocných) is an expansive political essay written in October 1978 by the Czech dramatist, political dissident and later politician, Václav Havel.

Samizdat

samizdat publicationsself-publishedTamizdat
This play, along with two other "Vaněk" plays (so-called because of the recurring character Ferdinand Vaněk, a stand in for Havel), became distributed in samizdat form across Czechoslovakia, and greatly added to Havel's reputation of being a leading dissident (several other Czech writers later wrote their own plays featuring Vaněk).
Samizdat copies of texts, such as Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita or Václav Havel's essay The Power of the Powerless were passed around among trusted friends.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
Havel's Civic Forum party played a major role in the Velvet Revolution that toppled communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989.
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989.

Liberal International

LIPresident of the Liberal Internationalfull member of Liberal International
In 1990, soon after his election, Havel was awarded the Prize For Freedom of the Liberal International.
Conveyed annually since 1985 to an individual who of liberal conviction who has made outstanding efforts for the defence of freedom and human rights, recipients include Maria Corina Machado [Venezuela], Senator Leila de Lima [Philippines], Raif Badawi [Saudi Arabia], Waris Dirie [Somalia], and Vaclav Havel [Czechoslovakia/Czech Republic].

The Increased Difficulty of Concentration (play)

The Increased Difficulty of Concentration
The play was soon followed by The Memorandum, one of his best known plays, and The Increased Difficulty of Concentration, all at the Theatre on Balustrade.
The Increased Difficulty of Concentration is a play by Václav Havel.

Catastrophe (play)

CatastropheCatastrophe'' (play)
Samuel Beckett's 1982 short play, Catastrophe, was dedicated to Havel while he was held as a political prisoner in Czechoslovakia.
It was dedicated to then imprisoned Czech reformer and playwright, Václav Havel.

Největší Čech

The Greatest Czech100 greatest Czechsin a 2005 poll
In The Greatest Czech TV show (the Czech spin-off of the BBC 100 Greatest Britons show) in 2005, Havel received the third biggest amount of voices, so he was elected to be third greatest Czech when he was still alive.
3) Václav Havel (1936-2011) – last Czechoslovak (1989–1992) and first Czech president (1993–2003)

Velvet Revolution

fall of communismfall of the communist regime1989
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003. Havel's Civic Forum party played a major role in the Velvet Revolution that toppled communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989.
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989.

Czech and Slovak Federative Republic

CzechoslovakiaCSFRCzechoslovak Federative Republic
Despite increasing political tensions between the Czechs and the Slovaks in 1992, Havel supported the retention of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic prior to the dissolution of the country.
In the aftermath of the Velvet Revolution, newly elected President Václav Havel announced that "Socialist" would be dropped from the country's official name.

1990 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

elections19901990 elections
In 1990, Czechoslovakia held its first free elections in 44 years, resulting in a sweeping victory for Civic Forum and its Slovak counterpart, Public Against Violence.
The election saw a comprehensive victory for the movement of President Václav Havel.

John W. Kluge Center

Kluge ChairKluge Center
In 2005, the former President occupied the Kluge Chair for Modern Culture at the John W. Kluge Center of the United States Library of Congress, where he continued his research on human rights.
Past scholars have included Václav Havel, Jaroslav Pelikan, John Hope Franklin, Robert V. Remini, Romila Thapar, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Abdolkarim Soroush, David Grinspoon, Steven J. Dick, and Cardinal Theodore Edgar McCarrick among many.