Václav Havel

Vaclav HavelHavelPresident HavelVáclav Havel LibraryCzech President of the same nameCzech Republicformer philosopher-presidentPresident Václav Havel
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.wikipedia
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Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism

Prague ProcessPrague DeclarationEuropean Conscience and Communism
Havel continued his life as a public intellectual after his presidency, launching several initiatives including the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, the VIZE 97 Foundation, and the Forum 2000 annual conference.
The Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism (also known as the Prague Declaration), which was signed on 3 June 2008, was a declaration initiated by the Czech government and signed by prominent European politicians, former political prisoners and historians, among them former Czech President Václav Havel and future German President Joachim Gauck, which called for "Europe-wide condemnation of, and education about, the crimes of communism."

List of presidents of Czechoslovakia

President of CzechoslovakiaPresidentPresident of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
The last living former President of Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel, died in 2011.

Theatre of the Absurd

absurdistTheater of the Absurdabsurd
In works such as The Garden Party and The Memorandum, Havel used an absurdist style to criticize communism.
Playwrights commonly associated with the Theatre of the Absurd include Samuel Beckett, Eugène Ionesco, Jean Genet, Arthur Adamov, Harold Pinter, Luigi Pirandello, Tom Stoppard, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Miguel Mihura, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Fernando Arrabal, Václav Havel, Edward Albee, Malay Roy Choudhury, Tadeusz Różewicz, Sławomir Mrożek, N.F. Simpson, and Badal Sarkar.

Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
After participating in the Prague Spring and being blacklisted after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, he became more politically active and helped found several dissident initiatives, including Charter 77 and the Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted.
The Prague Spring inspired music and literature including the work of Václav Havel, Karel Husa, Karel Kryl and Milan Kundera's novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being.

Czechs

CzechCzech peopleBohemian
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
Another notable politician after the fall of the communist regime is Václav Havel, last President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

Forum 2000

Havel continued his life as a public intellectual after his presidency, launching several initiatives including the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, the VIZE 97 Foundation, and the Forum 2000 annual conference.
The Forum 2000 Foundation was founded in 1996 as a joint initiative of the Czech President Václav Havel, Japanese philanthropist Yohei Sasakawa, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Elie Wiesel.

Four Freedoms Award

Freedom medalFour Freedoms LaureateFreedom From Fear Award
He received numerous accolades during his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Gandhi Peace Prize, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, the Order of Canada, the Four Freedoms Award, the Ambassador of Conscience Award, and the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakiainvasion of CzechoslovakiaOperation Danube
After participating in the Prague Spring and being blacklisted after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, he became more politically active and helped found several dissident initiatives, including Charter 77 and the Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted.
The Prague Spring inspired music and literature such as the work of Václav Havel, Karel Husa, Karel Kryl, and Milan Kundera's novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being.

The Garden Party (play)

The Garden PartyThe Garden Party'' (play)
In works such as The Garden Party and The Memorandum, Havel used an absurdist style to criticize communism.
The Garden Party is a 1963 play by Václav Havel.

Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Velvet Divorcedissolutiondissolved
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
Czechoslovak president Václav Havel resigned rather than oversee the dissolution which he had opposed; in a September 1992 opinion poll, only 37% of Slovaks and 36% of Czechs favoured dissolution.

Olga Havlová

Olga HavelOlga Šplíchalová
On 9 July 1964, Havel married Olga Šplíchalová.
Olga Havlová, born Šplíchalová (11 July 1933 in Prague – 27 January 1996 in Prague) was the first wife of Václav Havel, the last President of Czechoslovakia and first President of the Czech Republic.

List of presidents of the Czech Republic

President of the Czech RepublicPresidentCzech President
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
The first president of the Czech Republic was Václav Havel.

Ambassador of Conscience Award

Amnesty Ambassador of Conscience AwardAmnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award
He received numerous accolades during his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Gandhi Peace Prize, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, the Order of Canada, the Four Freedoms Award, the Ambassador of Conscience Award, and the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award.

Civic Forum

OFCivic Forum (OF)
Havel's Civic Forum party played a major role in the Velvet Revolution that toppled communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989.
Playwright Václav Havel, its leader and founder, was elected president on December 29, 1989.

The Power of the Powerless

Power of the Powerless
He was known for his essays, most particularly The Power of the Powerless (1978), in which he described a societal paradigm in which citizens were forced to "live within a lie" under the communist regime.
The Power of the Powerless (Moc bezmocných) is an expansive political essay written in October 1978 by the Czech dramatist, political dissident and later politician, Václav Havel.

Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award

He received numerous accolades during his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Gandhi Peace Prize, the Philadelphia Liberty Medal, the Order of Canada, the Four Freedoms Award, the Ambassador of Conscience Award, and the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award.
Václav Havel grew up in a circle which maintained Czechoslovakia's independent culture in defiance of the Communist regime of the time.

Samizdat

samizdat publicationsself-publishedTamizdat
This play, along with two other "Vaněk" plays (so-called because of the recurring character Ferdinand Vaněk, a stand in for Havel), became distributed in samizdat form across Czechoslovakia, and greatly added to Havel's reputation of being a leading dissident (several other Czech writers later wrote their own plays featuring Vaněk).
Samizdat copies of texts, such as Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita or Václav Havel's essay The Power of the Powerless were passed around among trusted friends.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
Havel's Civic Forum party played a major role in the Velvet Revolution that toppled communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989.
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989.

College of Europe

Certificate of Advanced European StudiesCollège d'EuropeCollege d'Europe
The 2012–2013 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour.

Liberal International

LIPresident of the Liberal Internationalfull member of Liberal International
In 1990, soon after his election, Havel was awarded the Prize For Freedom of the Liberal International.
Conveyed annually since 1984 to an individual who of liberal conviction who has made outstanding efforts for the defence of freedom and human rights, recipients include Maria Corina Machado [Venezuela], Senator Leila de Lima [Philippines], Raif Badawi [Saudi Arabia], Waris Dirie [Somalia], and Vaclav Havel [Czechoslovakia/Czech Republic].

The Increased Difficulty of Concentration (play)

The Increased Difficulty of Concentration
The play was soon followed by The Memorandum, one of his best known plays, and The Increased Difficulty of Concentration, all at the Theatre on Balustrade.
The Increased Difficulty of Concentration is a play by Václav Havel.

Catastrophe (play)

CatastropheCatastrophe'' (play)
Samuel Beckett's 1982 short play, Catastrophe, was dedicated to Havel while he was held as a political prisoner in Czechoslovakia.
It was dedicated to then imprisoned Czech reformer and playwright, Václav Havel.

Prize For Freedom

In 1990, soon after his election, Havel was awarded the Prize For Freedom of the Liberal International.

Největší Čech

The Greatest Czech100 greatest Czechsin a 2005 poll
In The Greatest Czech TV show (the Czech spin-off of the BBC 100 Greatest Britons show) in 2005, Havel received the third biggest amount of voices, so he was elected to be third greatest Czech when he was still alive.

1990 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

1990elections1990 elections
In 1990, Czechoslovakia held its first free elections in 44 years, resulting in a sweeping victory for Civic Forum and its Slovak counterpart, Public Against Violence.
The movement led by President Václav Havel emerged as the largest bloc, with majorities in both houses of parliament.