VHS

videoVHS tapeVHS tapesvideocassetteVHS videovideotapehome videoVHS singleVideo Singlevideos
VHS (short for Video Home System) is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes.wikipedia
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JVC

JVC VictorVictorVictor Company of Japan
Developed by Victor Company of Japan (JVC) in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977.
Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VHS) video recorder.

Television

TVtelevisedtelevisions
In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses.
The availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax and VHS tapes, high-capacity hard disk drives, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, and cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.

Home video

home entertainmenthome mediavideo album
In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses.
The term originates from the VHS/Betamax era, when the predominant medium was videotape, but has carried over into optical disc formats like DVD and Blu-ray and, since the 2000s, into methods of digital distribution such as Netflix, Hulu, and Prime Video.

S-VHS

Super VHSSuper-VHSSVHS
Optical disc formats later began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS.
S-VHS, the common initialism for Super VHS, is an improved version of the VHS standard for consumer-level video recording.

LaserDisc

LDlaser discLaserVision
The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc, was not widely adopted across Europe, but was hugely popular in Japan and a minor hit in the United States.
Although the format was capable of offering higher-quality video and audio than its consumer rivals, VHS and Betamax videotape, LaserDisc never managed to gain widespread use in North America, largely due to high costs for the players and video titles themselves and the inability to record TV programs.

Videotape format war

format warformat warsBeta
In the 1970s and early 1980s, there was a format war in the home video industry.
The videotape format war was a period of intense competition or "format war" of incompatible models of consumer-level analog video videocassette and video cassette recorders (VCR) in the late 1970s and the 1980s, mainly involving the Betamax and Video Home System (VHS) formats.

Betamax

BetaBeta TapeBeta-Max
Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax, received the most media exposure. Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX.
Betamax is obsolete, having lost the videotape format war to VHS.

JVC HR-3300

Victor HR-3300world's first VHS videocassette recorder
The first VCR to use VHS was the Victor HR-3300, and was introduced by the president of JVC in Japan on September 9, 1976.
The JVC HR-3300 VIDSTAR is the world's first VHS-based VCR to be released to the market, introduced by the president of JVC at the Okura Hotel on September 9, 1976.

Video tape recorder

VTRvideotape recordervideo tape recording
From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders (VTRs).
It was soon followed by the competing VHS (Video Home System) format from JVC in 1977 and later by other formats such as Video 2000 from Philips, V-Cord from Sanyo, and Great Time Machine from Quasar.

Sony

Sony CorporationSony ElectronicsSony Corp.
In 1969, JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric (Matsushita was then parent company of Panasonic and is now known by that name, also majority stockholder of JVC until 2008) in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer.
Sony was involved in the videotape format war of the early 1980s, when they were marketing the Betamax system for video cassette recorders against the VHS format developed by JVC.

Optical disc

optical mediaoptical data storageoptical discs
Optical disc formats later began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS.
The LaserDisc format stored analog video signals for the distribution of home video, but commercially lost to the VHS videocassette format, due mainly to its high cost and non-re-recordability; other first-generation disc formats were designed only to store digital data and were not initially capable of use as a digital video medium.

Fluoroscopy

fluoroscopefluoroscopicJames F. McNulty (U.S. radio engineer)
At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging (fluoroscopy).
In the 1970s, video tape moved from TV studios and medical imaging into the consumer market with home video via VHS and Betamax, and those formats were also incorporated into medical video equipment.

Videocassette recorder

VCRvideo cassette recorderVCRs
The first VCR to use VHS was the Victor HR-3300, and was introduced by the president of JVC in Japan on September 9, 1976. The television industry viewed videocassette recorders (VCRs) as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby.
Its cartridges, resembling larger versions of the later VHS cassettes, used 3/4-inch (1.9 cm) tape and had a maximum playing time of 60 minutes, later extended to 80 minutes.

Video

analog videovideo albumvideo recording
VHS (short for Video Home System) is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes.

Ampex

Ampex CorporationAmpex RecordsAmpex HS-100 model
In 1956, following several attempts by other companies, the first commercially successful VTR, the Ampex VRX-1000, was introduced by Ampex Corporation.
While the quadruplex recording system per se is no longer in use, the principle evolved into the helical scanning technique used in virtually all video tape machines, such as those using the consumer formats known as VHS and the briefly successful Sony Betamax format.

Azimuth recording

azimuth headslant-azimuth recording
To reduce crosstalk between adjacent tracks on playback, an azimuth recording method is used: The gaps of the two heads are not aligned exactly with the track path.
However, if the heads are mounted at slightly different angles (such as ±7 degrees in VHS), destructive interference will occur at high frequencies when reading data recorded in the cross-talking channel but not in the channel that is intended to be read.

Videotape

videocassettevideo tapevideo
VHS (short for Video Home System) is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes.
Sony's Betamax (1975) and JVC's VHS (1976) created a mass-market for VCRs and the two competing systems battled the "videotape format war", which VHS ultimately won.

Funai

Funai ElectricFunai Electric Co.Funai Electric Company, Ltd.
The last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment, Funai of Japan, ceased production in July 2016.
Funai also developed the Compact Video Cassette (CVC) format in the same year, a joint development with Technicolor, trying to compete with VHS and Betamax.

NTSC

analogNTSC-M30p
Originally, Beta I machines using the NTSC television standard were able to record one hour of programming at their standard tape speed of 1.5 inches per second (ips).
NTSC-N/PAL-N are compatible with sources such as game consoles, VHS/Betamax VCRs, and DVD players.

VX (videocassette format)

VXGreat Time Machine
Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX.
The tape in this opening was pre-formed in a loop to go around the head drum, eliminating the need for the tape to be pulled out of the cassette and threaded around the drum (as with later videocassette formats such as VHS and Betamax).

Control track

control'' track
Another linear control track, at the tape's lower edge, holds pulses that mark the beginning of every frame of video; these are used to fine-tune the tape speed during playback, so that the high speed rotating heads remained exactly on their helical tracks rather than somewhere between two adjacent tracks (known as "tracking").
A control track is a track that runs along an outside edge of a standard analog videotape (including VHS).

Analog recording

analoganalogueanalog audio
VHS (short for Video Home System) is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes.
From 1951 video was also recorded to tape, with the two most successful formats being Betacam for professional use, and VHS for consumers.

Film

motion picturemoviefilms
In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses.
Other ways of distributing a film include rental or personal purchase of the film in a variety of media and formats, such as VHS tape or DVD, or Internet downloading or streaming using a computer.

VHS-C

S-VHS-CVHS-Compact (VHS-C)
Another variant is VHS-Compact (VHS-C), originally developed for portable VCRs in 1982, but ultimately finding success in palm-sized camcorders.
VHS-C is the compact VHS videocassette format, introduced by Victor Company of Japan (JVC) in 1982, and used primarily for consumer-grade compact analog recording camcorders.

Camcorder

camcorderstapeless camcorderdigital camcorder
Another variant is VHS-Compact (VHS-C), originally developed for portable VCRs in 1982, but ultimately finding success in palm-sized camcorders.
Specialized videocassette recorders were introduced by JVC (VHS) and Sony (U-matic, with Betamax) releasing a model for mobile work.