Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinatingvaccinatevaccinesimmunizationvaccineattenuatedchildhood vaccinationchildhood vaccinations
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.wikipedia
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Adaptive immune system

adaptive immunityadaptive immune responseadaptive
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune responses
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate infectious disease.
The administration of vaccines is called vaccination.

Herd immunity

herd immunity § Mechanismthe wider community
When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results.
Individual immunity can be gained through recovering from a natural infection or through artificial means such as vaccination.

Smallpox

small poxsmall-poxvariola
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.
Edward Jenner discovered in 1798 that vaccination could prevent smallpox.

Inoculation

inoculuminoculatedinoculate
Smallpox was most likely the first disease people tried to prevent by inoculation and was the first disease for which a vaccine was produced.
The terms inoculation, vaccination, and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.

Poliomyelitis

polioinfantile paralysisparalytic polio
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.
In 2013 the World Health Organization hoped that vaccination efforts and early detection of cases would result in global eradication of the disease by 2018.

Louis Pasteur

PasteurPasteur, LouisPasteurian
Louis Pasteur furthered the concept through his work in microbiology. The first rabies immunization was given by Louis Pasteur to a child after he was bitten by a rabid dog.
Louis Pasteur (, ; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

Eradication of infectious diseases

eradicationeradicatedisease eradication programme
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.
It became the first disease for which there was an effective vaccine in 1798 when Edward Jenner showed the protective effect of inoculation (vaccination) of humans with material from cowpox lesions.

Measles

rubeolameasles virusAcute Measles encephalitis
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.
Vaccination resulted in a 75% decrease in deaths from measles between 2000 and 2013, with about 85% of children worldwide being currently vaccinated.

Edward Jenner

JennerJenner, EdwardDr. Edward Jenner
The smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by English physician Edward Jenner and although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier he was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production.
(Crucially this meant that he underwent variolation and not vaccination.) At the age of 14, he was apprenticed for seven years to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire, where he gained most of the experience needed to become a surgeon himself.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Other examples include experimental AIDS, cancer and Alzheimer's disease vaccines.
Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat and avoiding too much sunlight exposure.

Immunization

immunisationimmunizationsimmunize
Stimulating immune responses with an infectious agent is known as immunization.
Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination.

Public health

healthcommunity medicinepublic health specialist
In response, several vaccine makers stopped production, which the US government believed could be a threat to public health, so laws were passed to shield manufacturers from liabilities stemming from vaccine injury claims.
Common public health initiatives include promoting handwashing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, suicide prevention and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

Immunity (medical)

immunityimmuneimmune response
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
By 1800 the procedure was referred to as vaccination.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfectious
Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate infectious disease.
Resistance to infection (immunity) may be acquired following a disease, by asymptomatic carriage of the pathogen, by harboring an organism with a similar structure (crossreacting), or by vaccination.

Tetanus

lockjawanti-tetanuslock jaw
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.
Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid.

Cowpox

cowpox virusCow Poxcow-pox
It was noticed during the 18th century that people who had suffered from the less virulent cowpox were immune to smallpox, and the first recorded use of this idea was by a farmer Benjamin Jesty at Yetminster in Dorset, who had suffered the disease and transmitted it to his own family in 1774, his sons subsequently not getting the mild version of smallpox when later inoculated in 1789.
The word “vaccination,” coined by Jenner in 1796, is derived from the Latin root vaccinus, meaning of or from the cow.

HIV/AIDS

AIDSHIVacquired immune deficiency syndrome
Other examples include experimental AIDS, cancer and Alzheimer's disease vaccines.
Vaccination against hepatitis A and B is advised for all people at risk of HIV before they become infected; however it may also be given after infection.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Some vaccines are administered after the patient already has contracted a disease.
These include sanitation, proper nutrition, adequate exercise, vaccinations and other self-care and public health measures.

Vaccine controversies

anti-vaccinationanti-vaccination movementanti-vaccine
Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, and religious grounds. Beginning with early vaccination in the nineteenth century, these policies were resisted by a variety of groups, collectively called antivaccinationists, who object on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds.
Originally called inoculation, this technique was later called variolation to avoid confusion with cowpox inoculation (vaccination) when that was introduced by Edward Jenner.

Vaccination Act

compulsory vaccinationmandatory vaccination1889 Royal Commission on Vaccination
Since then vaccination campaigns have spread throughout the globe, sometimes prescribed by law or regulations (See Vaccination Acts).
The UK Vaccination Acts of 1840, 1853, 1867 and 1898 were a series of legislative Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom regarding the vaccination policy of the country.

Vaccination and religion

religiousReligious arguments against inoculationreligious exemption
Beginning with early vaccination in the nineteenth century, these policies were resisted by a variety of groups, collectively called antivaccinationists, who object on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds.
Rowland Hill (1744–1833) was a popular English preacher acquainted with Edward Jenner, the pioneer of smallpox vaccination, and he encouraged the vaccination of the congregations he visited or preached to. He published a tract on the subject in 1806, at a time when many medical men refused to sanction it. Later he became a member of the Royal Jennererian Society, which was established when vaccination was accepted in Britain, India, the US, and elsewhere.

Rabies

rabidhydrophobiamad dog
The first rabies immunization was given by Louis Pasteur to a child after he was bitten by a rabid dog.
Vaccination after exposure, PEP, is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly, in general within 6 days of infection.

Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculation
The smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by English physician Edward Jenner and although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier he was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production.
Vaccination, the term which soon replaced cowpox inoculation and vaccine inoculation, was first used in print by Jenner's friend, Richard Dunning in 1800.