Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinatingvaccinatevaccinesimmunizationvaccineattenuatedchildhood vaccinationchildhood vaccinations
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.wikipedia
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Adaptive immune system

adaptive immunityadaptive immune responseadaptive
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune responses
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate infectious disease.
The administration of vaccines is called vaccination.

Herd immunity

herd immunity § Mechanismthe wider community
When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results.
Individual immunity can be gained through recovering from a natural infection or through artificial means such as vaccination.

Smallpox

small poxsmall-poxvariola
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.
Edward Jenner discovered in 1798 that vaccination could prevent smallpox.

Measles

rubeolameasles virusAcute Measles encephalitis
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. Maurice Hilleman was the most prolific vaccine inventor, developing successful vaccines for measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia and 'Haemophilus influenzae'. In the MMR vaccine controversy, a fraudulent 1998 paper by Andrew Wakefield, originally published in The Lancet, presented falsified evidence that the MMR vaccine (an immunization against measles, mumps and rubella that is typically first administered to children shortly after their first birthday) was linked to the onset of autism spectrum disorders.
Vaccination resulted in a 75% decrease in deaths from measles between 2000 and 2013, with about 85% of children worldwide being currently vaccinated.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Other examples include experimental AIDS, cancer and Alzheimer's disease vaccines.
Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat and avoiding too much sunlight exposure.

Immunization

immunisationimmunizationsimmunize
Stimulating immune responses with an infectious agent is known as immunization. Although the benefits of preventing serious illness and death from infectious diseases greatly outweigh the risks of rare serious adverse effects following immunization, disputes have arisen over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, and safety of vaccination.
Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly vaccination.

Immunity (medical)

immunityimmuneimmune response
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
By 1800 the procedure was referred to as vaccination.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfectious
Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate infectious disease. Although the benefits of preventing serious illness and death from infectious diseases greatly outweigh the risks of rare serious adverse effects following immunization, disputes have arisen over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, and safety of vaccination.
Resistance to infection (immunity) may be acquired following a disease, by asymptomatic carriage of the pathogen, by harboring an organism with a similar structure (crossreacting), or by vaccination.

Cowpox

cowpox virusCow Poxcow-pox
It was noticed during the 18th century that people who had suffered from the less virulent cowpox were immune to smallpox, and the first recorded use of this idea was by a farmer Benjamin Jesty at Yetminster in Dorset, who had suffered the disease and transmitted it to his own family in 1774, his sons subsequently not getting the mild version of smallpox when later inoculated in 1789.
The word “vaccination,” coined by Jenner in 1796, is derived from the Latin root vaccinus, meaning of or from the cow.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Some vaccines are administered after the patient already has contracted a disease.
These include sanitation, proper nutrition, adequate exercise, vaccinations and other self-care and public health measures.

Vaccine controversies

anti-vaccinationanti-vaccination movementanti-vaccine
Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, and religious grounds. Beginning with early vaccination in the nineteenth century, these policies were resisted by a variety of groups, collectively called antivaccinationists, who object on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds.
Originally called inoculation, this technique was later called variolation to avoid confusion with cowpox inoculation (vaccination) when that was introduced by Edward Jenner.

Vaccination and religion

religiousReligious arguments against inoculationreligious exemption
Beginning with early vaccination in the nineteenth century, these policies were resisted by a variety of groups, collectively called antivaccinationists, who object on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds.
Rowland Hill (1744–1833) was a popular English preacher acquainted with Edward Jenner, the pioneer of smallpox vaccination, and he encouraged the vaccination of the congregations he visited or preached to. He published a tract on the subject in 1806, at a time when many medical men refused to sanction it. Later he became a member of the Royal Jennererian Society, which was established when vaccination was accepted in Britain, India, the US, and elsewhere.

Rabies

rabidhydrophobiamad dog
The first rabies immunization was given by Louis Pasteur to a child after he was bitten by a rabid dog.
Vaccination after exposure, PEP, is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly, in general within 6 days of infection.

Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculation
The smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by English physician Edward Jenner and although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier he was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production.
Vaccination, the term which soon replaced cowpox inoculation and vaccine inoculation, was first used in print by Jenner's friend, Richard Dunning in 1800.

Poliomyelitis eradication

polio eradicationeradication of polioeradicate polio
In 1988, the governing body of WHO targeted polio for eradication by 2000.
If the number of susceptible individuals can be reduced to a sufficiently small number through vaccination, then the pathogen will eventually die off.

Whooping cough

pertussiswhooping-coughPertussis (whooping cough)
In 2010, California had the worst whooping cough outbreak in 50 years.
Prevention is mainly by vaccination with the pertussis vaccine.

Passive immunity

maternal antibodiespassive immunizationimmunization, passive
While vaccination provides a lasting effect, it usually takes several weeks to develop, while passive immunity (the transfer of antibodies) has immediate effect.

Adverse effect

adverse effectsside effectsside effect
Although the benefits of preventing serious illness and death from infectious diseases greatly outweigh the risks of rare serious adverse effects following immunization, disputes have arisen over the morality, ethics, effectiveness, and safety of vaccination.
Vaccination may have adverse effects due to the nature of its biological preparation, sometimes using attenuated pathogens and toxins.

Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’sAlzheimer’s disease
Other examples include experimental AIDS, cancer and Alzheimer's disease vaccines.
Immunotherapy or vaccination for the amyloid protein is one treatment modality under study.

Pneumonia

bronchopneumoniabronchial pneumoniapneumonic
Maurice Hilleman was the most prolific vaccine inventor, developing successful vaccines for measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia and 'Haemophilus influenzae'.
Prevention includes vaccination, environmental measures and appropriate treatment of other health problems.

Hepatitis A

hepatitis A virusAinfectious hepatitis
Maurice Hilleman was the most prolific vaccine inventor, developing successful vaccines for measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia and 'Haemophilus influenzae'.
IgG antibodies to HAV are also found in the blood following vaccination, and tests for immunity to the virus are based on the detection of this antibody.

Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitis
Maurice Hilleman was the most prolific vaccine inventor, developing successful vaccines for measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia and 'Haemophilus influenzae'.
For some causes of meningitis, protection can be provided in the long term through vaccination, or in the short term with antibiotics.

MMR vaccine

MMRmeasles-mumps-rubella vaccinemeasles, mumps and rubella
In the MMR vaccine controversy, a fraudulent 1998 paper by Andrew Wakefield, originally published in The Lancet, presented falsified evidence that the MMR vaccine (an immunization against measles, mumps and rubella that is typically first administered to children shortly after their first birthday) was linked to the onset of autism spectrum disorders.
These strains are therefore called attenuated strains.