Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccinationvaccinologyvaccinationsvaccinatevaccinologistrecombinant vaccinedelivery systemtherapeutic vaccine
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.wikipedia
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Cancer vaccine

cancer vaccinesvaccineAnti-cancer vaccines
Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated).
A cancer vaccine is a vaccine, that either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
The administration of vaccines is called vaccination.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.

HPV vaccine

HPV vaccinationHuman papillomavirus vaccinevaccine
The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine.
Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus.

Vaccine-preventable diseases

vaccine-preventable diseasevaccine-preventabledisease
The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different preventable infections.
A vaccine-preventable disease is an infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists.

Edward Jenner

JennerJenner, EdwardDr. Edward Jenner
The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote cowpox.
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.

Breakthrough infection

If a vaccinated individual does develop the disease vaccinated against (breakthrough infection), the disease is likely to be less virulent than in unvaccinated victims.
Simply, they occur when vaccines fail to provide immunity against the pathogen they are designed to target.

Immunologic adjuvant

adjuvantadjuvantsvaccine adjuvant
Adjuvants commonly are used to boost immune response, particularly for older people (50–75 years and up), whose immune response to a simple vaccine may have weakened.
Adjuvants in immunology are often used to modify or augment the effects of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease.

Therapy

therapeutictreatmenttherapist
Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated).

Eradication of infectious diseases

eradicationeradicatedisease eradication programme
United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). NIAID Biodefense Research Agenda for Category B and C Priority Pathogens. Accessed 11 September 2012. "Vaccines are the most effective method of protecting the public against infectious diseases." widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.
It became the first disease for which there was an effective vaccine in 1798 when Edward Jenner showed the protective effect of inoculation (vaccination) of humans with material from cowpox lesions.

MMR vaccine

MMRmeasles-mumps-rubella vaccinemeasles, mumps and rubella
MMR vaccine is rarely associated with febrile seizures.
The MMR vaccine is a vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles).

Vaccination schedule

vaccine scheduleroutine vaccinationsvaccination program
whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed.
A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or reduce the effects of infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen.

Vaccine efficacy

efficacyeffectiveness
The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors:
Vaccine efficacy was designed and calculated by Greenwood and Yule in 1915 for the cholera and typhoid vaccines.

Varicella vaccine

Varicellachickenpox vaccinechickenpox
The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. Varicella vaccine is rarely associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals and rotavirus vaccines are moderately associated with intussusception.
Varicella vaccine, also known as chickenpox vaccine, is a vaccine that protects against chickenpox.

Rotavirus vaccine

Rotavirusrotavirus vaccinationrotaviral vaccines
Varicella vaccine is rarely associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals and rotavirus vaccines are moderately associated with intussusception.
Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among young children.

Polio vaccine

oral polio vaccinepolio vaccinationpolio
Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).

Poliomyelitis eradication

polio eradicationeradication of polioeradicate polio
Polio, which is transmitted only between humans, is targeted by an extensive eradication campaign that has seen endemic polio restricted to only parts of three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan).
Three indicators, however, are considered of primary importance in determining the likelihood of successful eradication: that effective interventional tools are available to interrupt transmission of the agent, such as a vaccine; that diagnostic tools, with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, be available to detect infections that can lead to transmission of the disease; and that humans are required for the life-cycle of the agent, which has no other vertebrate reservoir and cannot amplify in the environment.

Influenza vaccine

flu vaccineinfluenzainfluenza vaccination
The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses.

Rabies vaccine

vaccinationrabies vaccinationrabies vaccines
Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.
Rabies vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent rabies.

Hepatitis A vaccine

Hepatitis Ahepatitis vaccinesHepA_pediatric
Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.
Hepatitis A vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis A.

Attenuated vaccine

attenuatedlive vaccinelive attenuated
Some vaccines contain live, attenuated microorganisms.
An attenuated vaccine is a vaccine created by reducing the virulence of a pathogen, but still keeping it viable (or "live").

National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act

National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986
The United States has the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act.
The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) of 1986 (42 U.S.C. §§ 300aa-1 to 300aa-34) was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan as part of a larger health bill on Nov 14, 1986, in the United States, to eliminate the potential financial liability of vaccine makers due to vaccine injury claims.

Antigen

antigensantigenicantigenic proteins
It also might fail for genetic reasons if the host's immune system includes no strains of B cells that can generate antibodies suited to reacting effectively and binding to the antigens associated with the pathogen.
Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient.

Louis Pasteur

PasteurPasteur, LouisPasteurian
In 1881, to honor Jenner, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be extended to cover the new protective inoculations then being developed.
This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name of "vaccines", in honour of Jenner's discovery.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune responses
The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future.
Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, while many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of micro-organisms, including harmless toxin components.

Edible algae vaccine

Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus (previously extracted from the blood serum of chronically infected patients, but now produced by recombination of the viral genes into yeast) or as an edible algae vaccine, the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein, and the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits of the influenza virus.
Edible algae based vaccination is a vaccination strategy under preliminary research to combine a genetically engineered sub-unit vaccine and an immunologic adjuvant into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii microalgae.