Vaccine controversies

anti-vaccinationanti-vaccination movementanti-vaccineanti-vaccinationistanti-vaccine movementvaccine overloadanti-vaxxerantivaccinationistantivaccinevaccine controversy
Vaccine controversies are public debates around the medical, ethical and legal issues related to vaccines.wikipedia
356 Related Articles

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
Originally called inoculation, this technique was later called variolation to avoid confusion with cowpox inoculation (vaccination) when that was introduced by Edward Jenner.
Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, and religious grounds.

Vaccination and religion

religiousReligious arguments against inoculationreligious exemption
Religious arguments against inoculation were soon advanced.
Anti-vaccinationists were most common in Protestant countries.

William Tebb

After an 1879 visit to New York by prominent British anti-vaccinationist William Tebb, The Anti-Vaccination Society of America was founded.
He was an anti-vaccinationist and author of anti-vaccination books.

John Pitcairn Jr.

John Pitcairn
John Pitcairn, the wealthy founder of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (now PPG Industries), emerged as a major financier and leader of the American anti-vaccination movement.
Pitcairn was also the primary financial benefactor of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, a Christian church which follows the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg, and was a major activist in the American anti-vaccination movement.

Andrew Wakefield

Later 20th-century events included the 1982 broadcast of DPT: Vaccine Roulette, which sparked debate over the DPT vaccine, and the 1998 publication of a fraudulent academic article by Andrew Wakefield which sparked the MMR vaccine controversy. Around the same time, disgraced former doctor Andrew Wakefield visited Minneapolis, teaming up with anti-vaccine groups to raise concerns that vaccines were the cause of autism, despite the fact that multiple studies have shown no connection between the MMR vaccine and autism.
Andrew Jeremy Wakefield (born 1957) is a discredited former British doctor who became an anti-vaccine activist.

Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculation
After Edward Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccine in 1798, variolation declined and was banned in some countries.
Smallpox vaccine was the only vaccine available during this period, and so the determined opposition to it initiated a number of vaccine controversies that spread to other vaccines and into the 21st century.

Biological plausibility

biologically plausiblePlausibilityplausible
Adverse effects ascribed to vaccines typically have an unknown origin, an increasing incidence, some biological plausibility, occurrences close to the time of vaccination, and dreaded outcomes.
This concept has application to many controversial public affairs debates, such as that over the causes of adverse vaccination outcomes.

Autism

autisticautistic disorderautistic children
Around the same time, disgraced former doctor Andrew Wakefield visited Minneapolis, teaming up with anti-vaccine groups to raise concerns that vaccines were the cause of autism, despite the fact that multiple studies have shown no connection between the MMR vaccine and autism.
This has led to unsupported theories blaming vaccine "overload", a vaccine preservative, or the MMR vaccine for causing autism.

George Bernard Shaw

Bernard ShawShawG. B. Shaw
Societies and publications were organized by the middle classes, and support came from celebrities such as George Bernard Shaw and Alfred Russel Wallace, doctors such as Charles Creighton and Edgar Crookshank, and parliamentarians such as Jacob Bright and James Allanson Picton.
In 1903 Shaw joined in a controversy about vaccination against smallpox.

Jacobson v. Massachusetts

There, in the case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts, the court ruled that states have the authority to require vaccination against smallpox during a smallpox epidemic.
Vaccine controversies

Vaccine Revolt

Revolta da Vacina
In November 1904, in response to years of inadequate sanitation and disease, followed by a poorly explained public health campaign led by the renowned Brazilian public health official Oswaldo Cruz, citizens and military cadets in Rio de Janeiro arose in a Revolta da Vacina, or Vaccine Revolt.
Vaccine controversy

Diphtheria

diphteriadiphtheria carrier statediphtheria toxin
Opposition to smallpox vaccination continued into the 20th century and was joined by controversy over new vaccines and the introduction of antitoxin treatment for diphtheria.
The 6-year-old child who died of the illness had not been previously vaccinated due to parental opposition to vaccination.

MMR vaccine controversy

MMR vaccinecontroversyarising from the results of a fraudulent scientific study
Later 20th-century events included the 1982 broadcast of DPT: Vaccine Roulette, which sparked debate over the DPT vaccine, and the 1998 publication of a fraudulent academic article by Andrew Wakefield which sparked the MMR vaccine controversy.
A 2009 review of studies on links between vaccines and autism discussed the MMR vaccine controversy as one of three main hypotheses that epidemiological and biological studies failed to support.

Vaccination policy

compulsory vaccinationmandatory vaccinationimmunization
Another source of controversy is whether mandatory vaccination violates civil liberties or reduces public trust in vaccination.
Beginning in the nineteenth century, these policies stirred resistance from a variety of groups, collectively called anti-vaccinationists, who objected on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds.

Naturopathy

naturopathnaturopathicnatural medicine
These include some elements of the chiropractic community, some homeopaths, and naturopaths.
Naturopaths are often opposed to mainstream medicine and take an antivaccinationist stance.

Herd immunity

herd immunity § Mechanismthe wider community
Incomplete vaccine coverage increases the risk of disease for the entire population, including those who have been vaccinated, because it reduces herd immunity.
Emerging or ongoing vaccine controversies and various reasons for opposing vaccination have reduced or eliminated herd immunity in certain communities, allowing preventable diseases to persist in or return to these communities.

Haredi burqa sect

black, head-to-toe coveringsHarediJewish extremist group
The Haredi burqa sect in Israel opposed vaccinations and medical treatments on moral grounds, which led to the death of at least one baby from untreated influenza.
Some members of the group reportedly do not believe in vaccination or treatments.

Homeopathy

homeopathichomeopathhomoeopathy
These include some elements of the chiropractic community, some homeopaths, and naturopaths.
The use of homeopathy as a preventive for serious infectious diseases is especially controversial, in the context of ill-founded public alarm over the safety of vaccines stoked by the anti-vaccination movement.

Precautionary principle

precautionaryprecautionprecautionary approach
As a result, in 1999, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) asked vaccine makers to remove thiomersal from vaccines as quickly as possible on the precautionary principle.
Vaccine controversies

Internet Research Agency

pro-Kremlin online troll fabricRussiaRussian internet trolls
An analysis of tweets from July 2014 through September 2017 revealed an active campaign on Twitter by the Internet Research Agency (IRA), a Russian troll farm accused of interference in the 2016 U.S. elections, to sow discord about the safety of vaccines.
Between July 2014 and September 2017, the IRA used bots and trolls on Twitter to sow discord about the safety of vaccines.

Germ theory denialism

denial of the germ theory of diseasedenieddo not believe
Many forms of alternative medicine are based on philosophies that oppose vaccination (including germ theory denialism) and have practitioners who voice their opposition.
A common thread among many alternative medicine proponents is opposition to vaccines and many use GTD to justify their claims.

Stephan Lewandowsky

LewandowskyLewandowsky, Stephan
* Lewandowsky et al. Anti-Vax Psychology Study Report –
They found that believing in such conspiracy theories was strongly associated with being more likely to reject all forms of science, such as climate change science, the safety of genetically modified foods, and the safety of vaccines.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
Vaccine controversies are public debates around the medical, ethical and legal issues related to vaccines.

Scientific consensus

consensusscholarly consensusacademic consensus
Despite overwhelming scientific consensus that vaccines are safe and effective, unsubstantiated scares regarding their safety still occur, resulting in outbreaks and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases.

Outbreak

outbreaksdisease outbreakdisease outbreaks
Despite overwhelming scientific consensus that vaccines are safe and effective, unsubstantiated scares regarding their safety still occur, resulting in outbreaks and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases.