Vaccine hesitancy

anti-vaccinationanti-vaccinationistanti-vaccineVaccine controversiesanti-vaccination movementanti-vaccine movementVaccine controversyanti-vaxxerVaccine overloadvaccines
Vaccine hesitancy is a reluctance or refusal to be vaccinated or to have one's children vaccinated.wikipedia
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Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
Vaccine hesitancy is a reluctance or refusal to be vaccinated or to have one's children vaccinated.
Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, and religious grounds, although no major religions oppose vaccination, and some consider it an obligation due to the potential to save lives.

Vaccination and religion

religiousReligious arguments against inoculationreligious exemption
Religious arguments against inoculation were soon advanced.
Anti-vaccinationists were most common in Protestant countries.

William Tebb

After an 1879 visit to New York by prominent British anti-vaccinationist William Tebb, The Anti-Vaccination Society of America was founded.
He was an anti-vaccinationist and author of anti-vaccination books.

John Pitcairn Jr.

John PitcairnJohn Pitcairn, Jr.John Pitcairn, Jr
John Pitcairn, the wealthy founder of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (now PPG Industries), emerged as a major financier and leader of the American anti-vaccination movement.
Pitcairn was also the primary financial benefactor of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, a Christian church which follows the teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg, and was a major activist in the American anti-vaccination movement.

Andrew Wakefield

Later 20th-century events included the 1982 broadcast of DPT: Vaccine Roulette, which sparked debate over the DPT vaccine, and the 1998 publication of a fraudulent academic article by Andrew Wakefield which sparked the MMR vaccine controversy. Around the same time, disgraced former doctor Andrew Wakefield visited Minneapolis, teaming up with anti-vaccine groups to raise concerns that vaccines were the cause of autism, despite the fact that multiple studies have shown no connection between the MMR vaccine and autism.
Andrew Jeremy Wakefield (born 1957) is a discredited British ex-physician who became an anti-vaccine activist.

Jennifer Reich

According to Jennifer Reich, those parents who believe vaccination to be quite effective but might prefer their children to remain unvaccinated, are those who are the most likely to be convinced to change their mind, as long as they are approached properly.
Her work on vaccine hesitancy gained widespread attention during the 2019 measles outbreaks.

Charles Creighton

Much later, Dr. Charles Creighton, a leading medical opponent of vaccination, claimed that the vaccine itself was a cause of syphilis and devoted a book to the subject. Societies and publications were organized by the middle classes, and support came from celebrities such as George Bernard Shaw and Alfred Russel Wallace, doctors such as Charles Creighton and Edgar Crookshank, and parliamentarians such as Jacob Bright and James Allanson Picton.
Creighton was an anti-vaccinationist.

2019 Pacific Northwest measles outbreak

a large concentration of cases in the Pacific Northwestan outbreak of at least 73 confirmed cases of measlesClark County Public Health officials declared a public health emergency
In January 2019, Washington state reported an outbreak of at least 73 confirmed cases of measles, most within Clark County, which has a higher rate of vaccination exemptions compared to the rest of the state.
The area where the outbreak began and spread is considered an anti-vaccination hotspot.

Biological plausibility

biologically plausiblePlausibilityplausible
Adverse effects ascribed to vaccines typically have an unknown origin, an increasing incidence, some biological plausibility, occurrences close to the time of vaccination, and dreaded outcomes.
This concept has application to many controversial public affairs debates, such as that over the causes of adverse vaccination outcomes.

Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationsmallpox inoculationvaccination
After Edward Jenner introduced the smallpox vaccine in 1798, variolation declined and was banned in some countries.
Smallpox vaccine was the only vaccine available during this period, and so the determined opposition to it initiated a number of vaccine controversies that spread to other vaccines and into the 21st century.

Autism

autisticautistic disorderautistic children
Around the same time, disgraced former doctor Andrew Wakefield visited Minneapolis, teaming up with anti-vaccine groups to raise concerns that vaccines were the cause of autism, despite the fact that multiple studies have shown no connection between the MMR vaccine and autism.
This has led to unsupported theories blaming vaccine "overload", a vaccine preservative, or the MMR vaccine for causing autism.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinologyvaccinated
Hesitancy primarily results from public debates around the medical, ethical and legal issues related to vaccines.

George Bernard Shaw

Bernard ShawShawG. B. Shaw
Societies and publications were organized by the middle classes, and support came from celebrities such as George Bernard Shaw and Alfred Russel Wallace, doctors such as Charles Creighton and Edgar Crookshank, and parliamentarians such as Jacob Bright and James Allanson Picton.
In 1903 Shaw joined in a controversy about vaccination against smallpox.

MMR vaccine and autism

MMR vaccine controversyMMR vaccinecontroversy
Later 20th-century events included the 1982 broadcast of DPT: Vaccine Roulette, which sparked debate over the DPT vaccine, and the 1998 publication of a fraudulent academic article by Andrew Wakefield which sparked the MMR vaccine controversy.
A 2009 review of studies on links between vaccines and autism discussed the MMR vaccine controversy as one of three main hypotheses that epidemiological and biological studies failed to support.

Jacobson v. Massachusetts

There, in the case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts, the court ruled that states have the authority to require vaccination against smallpox during a smallpox epidemic.

Robert F. Kennedy Jr.

Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.Robert Kennedy Jr.Robert F. Kennedy Jr
In the United States, the majority of anti-vaccine Facebook advertising in December 2018 and February 2019 had been paid for one of two groups: Robert F. Kennedy Jr.'s Children's Health Defense and Stop Mandatory Vaccination.
He is a prominent anti-vaccine activist and believes that there is a link between autism and vaccines.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
From late 1999 until the summer of 2000, there was a measles outbreak in North Dublin, Ireland.
A resurgence of measles occurred during 2019, which has been generally tied to parents choosing not to have their children vaccinated as most of the reported cases have occurred in people 19 years old or younger.

Vaccine Revolt

Revolta da Vacina
In November 1904, in response to years of inadequate sanitation and disease, followed by a poorly explained public health campaign led by the renowned Brazilian public health official Oswaldo Cruz, citizens and military cadets in Rio de Janeiro arose in a Revolta da Vacina, or Vaccine Revolt.

Diphtheria

diphteriadiptheriaDiphthera
Opposition to smallpox vaccination continued into the 20th century and was joined by controversy over new vaccines and the introduction of antitoxin treatment for diphtheria.
The 6-year-old child who died of the illness had not been previously vaccinated due to parental opposition to vaccination.

Children's Health Defense

In the United States, the majority of anti-vaccine Facebook advertising in December 2018 and February 2019 had been paid for one of two groups: Robert F. Kennedy Jr.'s Children's Health Defense and Stop Mandatory Vaccination.
Children's Health Defense is an American 501c3 nonprofit advocacy organization, known for its anti-vaccine activism.

Herd immunity

herd immunity § Mechanismthe wider community
Incomplete vaccine coverage increases the risk of disease for the entire population, including those who have been vaccinated, because it reduces herd immunity.
Emerging or ongoing vaccine controversies and various reasons for opposing vaccination have reduced or eliminated herd immunity in certain communities, allowing preventable diseases to persist in or return to these communities.

Facebook

Facebook LiveFacebook.comFacebook, Inc.
Internet advertising, on Facebook and elsewhere, is purchased by both public health authorities and anti-vaccination groups.
Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitancy, Facebook announced in March 2019 that it would provide users with "authoritative information" on the topic of vaccines.

Measles resurgence in the United States

2019 measles outbreaksepidemic of measles in that areahighest level in more than 25 years
However, it continues to be reintroduced by international travelers, and in recent years, anti-vaccination sentiment has allowed for the reemergence of measles outbreaks.

Naturopathy

naturopathnaturopathic medicinenatural medicine
More specifically, some elements of the chiropractic community, some homeopaths, and naturopaths developed anti-vaccine rhetoric.
Naturopaths are often opposed to mainstream medicine and take an antivaccinationist stance.

Vaccination policy

mandatory vaccinationcompulsory vaccinationimmunization
Opposition to mandatory vaccination may be based on anti-vaccine sentiment, concern that it violates civil liberties or reduces public trust in vaccination, or suspicion of profiteering by the pharmaceutical industry.
These policies stirred resistance from a variety of groups, collectively called anti-vaccinationists, who objected on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds.