A report on Vagus nerve

Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
H&E stained fibers of the vagus nerve (bottom right) innervate the sinoatrial node tissue (middle left)
Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial nerves labeled.
Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery
The arch of the aorta, and its branches
Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain
The tracheobronchial lymph glands
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive
Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view
Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses
The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia
The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum, seen from behind
The thyroid gland and its relations
The thymus of a full-term fetus, exposed in situ
Deep dissection of vagus nerve
Vagus nerve – dissection

Cranial nerve that interfaces with the parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.

- Vagus nerve
Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

56 related topics with Alpha

Overall

14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis

Vomiting

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Involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

Involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis
14th-century illustration of vomiting from the Casanatense Tacuinum Sanitatis
Vomiting
Partially digested food, with man-sized glove for scale
A drunk man vomiting, while a young slave is holding his forehead. Brygos Painter, 500–470 BC
Special bags are often supplied on boats for sick passengers to vomit into.

The cranial nerve X (vagus nerve) is activated when the pharynx is irritated, leading to a gag reflex.

Scheme showing pathways of a typical spinal nerve.
1. Somatic efferent.
2. Somatic afferent.
3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent.
6,7. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) afferent.
Note that this image merely depicts pathways in a schematic fashion – it is not anatomically correct. The efferent sympathetics exit in a loop.

General visceral afferent fiber

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The general visceral afferent (GVA) fibers conduct sensory impulses (usually pain or reflex sensations) from the internal organs, glands, and blood vessels to the central nervous system.

The general visceral afferent (GVA) fibers conduct sensory impulses (usually pain or reflex sensations) from the internal organs, glands, and blood vessels to the central nervous system.

Scheme showing pathways of a typical spinal nerve.
1. Somatic efferent.
2. Somatic afferent.
3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent.
6,7. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) afferent.
Note that this image merely depicts pathways in a schematic fashion – it is not anatomically correct. The efferent sympathetics exit in a loop.

The cranial nerves that contain GVA fibers include the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and the vagus nerve (CN X).

Sensation consists of signal collection and transduction

Sense

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Biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to stimuli.

Biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to stimuli.

Sensation consists of signal collection and transduction
Human power exponents and Steven's Power Law
Philippe Mercier - 
The Sense of Taste - Google Art Project
The sense of smell Bequest of Mrs E.G. Elgar, 1945 Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.
Lairesse's
Detail of The Senses of Hearing, Touch and Taste, Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1618
In this painting by Pietro Paolini, each individual represents one of the five senses.

Neurotransmitters from the gustatory cells can activate sensory neurons in the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus cranial nerves.

Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves (auricular labeled at top center)

Auricular branch of vagus nerve

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Often termed the Alderman's nerve or Arnold's nerve.

Often termed the Alderman's nerve or Arnold's nerve.

Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves (auricular labeled at top center)

The auricular branch of the vagus nerve supplies sensory innervation to the skin of the ear canal, tragus, and auricle.

Acetylcholine

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Organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals (including humans) as a neurotransmitter.

Organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals (including humans) as a neurotransmitter.

Acetylcholine pathway.
Acetylcholine processing in a synapse. After release acetylcholine is broken down by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
Muscles contract when they receive signals from motor neurons. The neuromuscular junction is the site of the signal exchange. The steps of this process in vertebrates occur as follows: (1) The action potential reaches the axon terminal. (2) Calcium ions flow into the axon terminal. (3) Acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft. (4) Acetylcholine binds to postsynaptic receptors. (5) This binding causes ion channels to open and allows sodium ions to flow into the muscle cell. (6) The flow of sodium ions across the membrane into the muscle cell generates an action potential which induces muscle contraction. Labels: A: Motor neuron axon B: Axon terminal C: Synaptic cleft D: Muscle cell E: Part of a Myofibril
Components and connections of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Micrograph of the nucleus basalis (of Meynert), which produces acetylcholine in the CNS. LFB-HE stain.

The concept of neurotransmitters was unknown until 1921, when Otto Loewi noted that the vagus nerve secreted a substance that inhibited the heart muscle whilst working as a professor in the University of Graz.

Anticholinergic

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Anticholinergics (anticholinergic agents) are substances that block the action of the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (ACh) at synapses in the central and peripheral nervous system.

Anticholinergics (anticholinergic agents) are substances that block the action of the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine (ACh) at synapses in the central and peripheral nervous system.

Sinus bradycardia due to a hypersensitive vagus nerve

The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue.

Solitary nucleus

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Series of purely sensory

Series of purely sensory

The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue.
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive.
Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent (sensory) cranial nerves schematically represented; lateral view.

Through the center of the SN runs the solitary tract, a white bundle of nerve fibers, including fibers from the facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, that innervate the SN.

Hering–Breuer reflex

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Reflex triggered to prevent the over-inflation of the lung.

Reflex triggered to prevent the over-inflation of the lung.

Once activated, they send action potentials through large myelinated fibers of the vagus nerve to the inspiratory area in the medulla and apneustic center of the pons.

The middle and posterior mediastina. Left side. (Lig. arteriosum labeled at upper right.)

Ligamentum arteriosum

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Small ligament attaching the aorta to the pulmonary artery.

Small ligament attaching the aorta to the pulmonary artery.

The middle and posterior mediastina. Left side. (Lig. arteriosum labeled at upper right.)

The ligamentum arteriosum is closely related to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the left vagus nerve.

Muscles of larynx. Side view. Right lamina of thyroid cartilage removed.

Cricothyroid muscle

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Only tensor muscle of the larynx aiding with phonation.

Only tensor muscle of the larynx aiding with phonation.

Muscles of larynx. Side view. Right lamina of thyroid cartilage removed.
The veins of the thyroid gland.
The fascia and middle thyroid veins.
Side view of the larynx, showing muscular attachments.

This muscle is the only laryngeal muscle innervated by the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve known as the superior laryngeal nerve.