A report on Vagus nerve

Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.
H&E stained fibers of the vagus nerve (bottom right) innervate the sinoatrial node tissue (middle left)
Inferior view of the human brain, with the cranial nerves labeled.
Section of the neck at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery
The arch of the aorta, and its branches
Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain
The tracheobronchial lymph glands
Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive
Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view
Upper part of medulla spinalis and hind- and mid-brains; posterior aspect, exposed in situ
The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses
The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia
The position and relation of the esophagus in the cervical region and in the posterior mediastinum, seen from behind
The thyroid gland and its relations
The thymus of a full-term fetus, exposed in situ
Deep dissection of vagus nerve
Vagus nerve – dissection

Cranial nerve that interfaces with the parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.

- Vagus nerve
Plan of the upper portions of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

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Overall

The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (Trigeminal nerve nuclei are at "V".)

Spinal trigeminal nucleus

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Nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and temperature from the ipsilateral face.

Nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and temperature from the ipsilateral face.

The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. (Trigeminal nerve nuclei are at "V".)

In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.

Cardiac branches of the vagus nerve

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The cardiac branches of the vagus nerve are two sets of nerves found in the upper torso, in close proximity to the larynx.

The cardiac branches of the vagus nerve are two sets of nerves found in the upper torso, in close proximity to the larynx.

The thoracic cardiac branches (sometimes ambiguously called inferior cardiac branches) of vagus nerve, on the right side, arise from the trunk of the vagus as it lies by the side of the trachea, and from its recurrent nerve; on the left side from the recurrent nerve only; passing inward, they end in the deep part of the cardiac plexus.

An ampoule containing atropine injection 1mL/0.5mg

Atropine

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Tropane alkaloid and anticholinergic medication used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate, and to decrease saliva production during surgery.

Tropane alkaloid and anticholinergic medication used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate, and to decrease saliva production during surgery.

An ampoule containing atropine injection 1mL/0.5mg
Atropa belladonna

In cardiac uses, it works as a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholinergic antagonist, increasing firing of the sinoatrial node (SA) and conduction through the atrioventricular node (AV) of the heart, opposes the actions of the vagus nerve, blocks acetylcholine receptor sites, and decreases bronchial secretions.

Sinoatrial node shown at 1. The rest of the conduction system of the heart is shown in blue.

Sinoatrial node

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Group of cells known as pacemaker cells, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.

Group of cells known as pacemaker cells, located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.

Sinoatrial node shown at 1. The rest of the conduction system of the heart is shown in blue.
Figure 2: Low magnification stained image of the SA node (center-right on image) and its surrounding tissue. The SA node surrounds the sinoatrial nodal artery, seen as the open lumen. Cardiac muscle cells of the right atrium can be seen to the left of the node, and fat tissue to the right.
Figure 3: Sinoatrial node action potential waveform, outlining major ion currents involved (downward deflection indicates ions moving into the cell, upwards deflection indicates ions flowing out of the cell).
Schematic representation of the atrioventricular bundle

The parasympathetic nerves supplying the SA node (in particular the Vagus nerves) originate in the brain.

Parasympathetic nervous system mediated by vagal innervation

Vagal maneuver

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Parasympathetic nervous system mediated by vagal innervation

A vagal maneuver is an action used to stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system by activating the vagus nerve.

Muscles of the pharynx and cheek

Pharyngeal muscles

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Posterior to the oral cavity, determining the shape of its lumen, and affecting its sound properties as the primary resonating cavity.

Posterior to the oral cavity, determining the shape of its lumen, and affecting its sound properties as the primary resonating cavity.

Muscles of the pharynx and cheek

They are innervated by the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve (CN X) with the exception of the stylopharyngeus muscle which is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX).

Polyphagia

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Abnormally strong, incessant sensation of hunger or desire to eat often leading to overeating.

Abnormally strong, incessant sensation of hunger or desire to eat often leading to overeating.

Knocking out vagal nerve receptors has been shown to cause hyperphagia.

Vagus nerve

Reflex syncope

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Brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure and/or a decrease in heart rate.

Brief loss of consciousness due to a neurologically induced drop in blood pressure and/or a decrease in heart rate.

Vagus nerve

The nucleus tractus solitarii of the brainstem is activated directly or indirectly by the triggering stimulus, resulting in simultaneous enhancement of parasympathetic nervous system (vagal) tone and withdrawal of sympathetic nervous system tone.

Otto Loewi

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German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter.

German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter.

Sir Henry Dale and Otto Loewi
In his most famous experiment, Loewi took fluid from one frog heart and applied it to another, slowing the second heart and showing that synaptic signaling used chemical messengers.
The Nobel Prize diploma of Otto Loewi, housed at the University of Graz

He dissected out of frogs two beating hearts: one with the vagus nerve which controls heart rate attached, the other heart on its own.

Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

Vagotomy

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Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part of the vagus nerve.