Valence (psychology)

valenceemotional valencepositively-valencedhedonic tonevalencedHedonicvalencesmultivalentpositively valenced stimuli
Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation.wikipedia
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Suffering

paindistresssuffer
Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation.
Suffering is the basic element that makes up the negative valence of affective phenomena.

Emotion

emotionsemotionalemotional state
Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation.
Often, the first two dimensions uncovered by factor analysis are valence (how negative or positive the experience feels) and arousal (how energized or enervated the experience feels).

Affect (psychology)

affectaffectiveaffects
The term is also used to describe the hedonic tone of feelings, affect, certain behaviors (for example, approach and avoidance), goal attainment or nonattainment, and conformity with or violation of norms.
Participants rated the pictures based on valence, arousal and dominance on the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) rating scale.

Ambivalence

ambivalentambivalent emotionsambivalently
Ambivalence can be viewed as conflict between positive and negative valence-carriers.
Stated another way, ambivalence is the experience of having an attitude towards someone or something that contains both positively and negatively valenced components.

Surprise (emotion)

surpriseelement of surprisesurprisingly
The possible absence of valence is cited as a reason to exclude surprise from the list of emotions, though some would include it.
Surprise can have any valence; that is, it can be neutral/moderate, pleasant, unpleasant, positive, or negative.

Kurt Lewin

LewinKurt Zadek LewinLeadership climate
The term entered English in psychology with the translation from German ("Valenz") in 1935 of works of Kurt Lewin.

Optimism bias

unrealistic optimismValence effectoptimistic
Valence effect is used to allude to the effect of valence on unrealistic optimism.

Pleasure

pleasantpleasurablerewarding
Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness/"good"-ness (positive valence) or averseness/"bad"-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation.

Anger

wrathangryIrate
For example, emotions popularly referred to as "negative", such as anger and fear, have negative valence.

Fear

terrorapprehensionfears
For example, emotions popularly referred to as "negative", such as anger and fear, have negative valence.

Joy

Feeling

feelingssentimentgut feeling
The term is also used to describe the hedonic tone of feelings, affect, certain behaviors (for example, approach and avoidance), goal attainment or nonattainment, and conformity with or violation of norms.

Behavior

behaviourbehavioralbehaviors
The term is also used to describe the hedonic tone of feelings, affect, certain behaviors (for example, approach and avoidance), goal attainment or nonattainment, and conformity with or violation of norms.

Social norm

social normsnormsnorm
The term is also used to describe the hedonic tone of feelings, affect, certain behaviors (for example, approach and avoidance), goal attainment or nonattainment, and conformity with or violation of norms.

Pride

arrogancearrogantproud
Theorists taking a valence-based approach to studying affect, judgment, and choice posit that emotions with the same valence (e.g., anger and fear or pride and surprise) produce a similar influence on judgments and choices.

Measurement

measuremeasuringmeasurements
Valence could be assigned a number and treated as if it were measured, but the validity of a measurement based on a subjective report is questionable.

Subjectivity

subjectivesubjectivelysubjectivities
Valence could be assigned a number and treated as if it were measured, but the validity of a measurement based on a subjective report is questionable.

Facial Action Coding System

FACS“facial action units" (FAU)
Measurement based on observations of facial expressions, using the Facial Action Coding System and microexpressions (see Paul Ekman) or muscle activity detected through facial electromyography, or on modern functional brain imaging may overcome this objection.

Microexpression

microexpressionsMicro-expressionmicro expressions
Measurement based on observations of facial expressions, using the Facial Action Coding System and microexpressions (see Paul Ekman) or muscle activity detected through facial electromyography, or on modern functional brain imaging may overcome this objection.

Paul Ekman

EkmanDr. Paul Ekman
Measurement based on observations of facial expressions, using the Facial Action Coding System and microexpressions (see Paul Ekman) or muscle activity detected through facial electromyography, or on modern functional brain imaging may overcome this objection.

Facial electromyography

Measurement based on observations of facial expressions, using the Facial Action Coding System and microexpressions (see Paul Ekman) or muscle activity detected through facial electromyography, or on modern functional brain imaging may overcome this objection.

Neuroimaging

brain imagingbrain scanbrain scans
Measurement based on observations of facial expressions, using the Facial Action Coding System and microexpressions (see Paul Ekman) or muscle activity detected through facial electromyography, or on modern functional brain imaging may overcome this objection.

Reward system

rewardrewardingrewards
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positively-valenced emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

Emotion in animals

emotional painemotionsanimal emotion
This has been called the "laterality-valence hypothesis".

Emotion and memory

emotional memoryemotionalemotional learning
One of the most common frameworks in the emotions field proposes that affective experiences are best characterized by two main dimensions: arousal and valence.