Valentinian III

ValentinianEmperor Valentinian IIIPlacidus Valentinianus CaesarValentineValentiniano
Valentinian III (Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus; 2 July 41916 March 455) was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455.wikipedia
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Galla Placidia

PlacidiaAelia Galla PlacidiaEmpress Galla Placidia
Valentinian was born in the western capital of Ravenna, the only son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Constantius.
Aelia Galla Placidia (388 – 27 November 450), daughter of the Roman emperor Theodosius I, was regent to Valentinian III from 423 until his majority in 437, and a major force in Roman politics for most of her life.

Ravenna

Ravenna, ItalySavio(RA)
Valentinian was born in the western capital of Ravenna, the only son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Constantius.
After many vicissitudes, Galla Placidia returned to Ravenna with her son, Emperor Valentinian III, due to the support of her nephew Theodosius II.

Justa Grata Honoria

HonoriaGrata HonoriaHonorie
Valentinian had a full sister, Justa Grata Honoria, who was probably born in 417 or 418 (the history of Paul the Deacon mentions her first when mentioning the children of the marriage, suggesting she was the eldest ).
Justa Grata Honoria, commonly referred to during her lifetime as Honoria, was the older sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III.

Joannes

Joannes AugustusJohn
In 423, Honorius died, and the usurper Joannes took power in Rome.
Ioannes, (Latin: Iohannes Augustus) known in English as Joannes or even John, was a Roman usurper (423–425) against Valentinian III.

Licinia Eudoxia

EudociaEmpress Eudoxiadue
Theodosius also betrothed him to his own daughter Licinia Eudoxia (whom Valentinian would eventually marry in 437 when he was 18).
Her husbands included the Western Roman Emperors Valentinian III and Petronius Maximus.

Minority reign

the ruler is a minorminorityminor
Given his minority, the new Augustus ruled under the regency of his mother Galla Placidia, one of whose first acts was to install Felix as the Magister utriusque militiae in the west.
Minority reigns also characterized a period in the Roman empire (367-455), notably the years that preceded the reign of Valentinian III, who also became emperor when he was six years old.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
Valentinian was born in the western capital of Ravenna, the only son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Constantius.
Honorius' death in 423 was followed by turmoil until the Eastern Roman government installed Valentinian III as Western Emperor in Ravenna by force of arms, with Galla Placidia acting as regent during her son's minority.

Flavius Aetius

AetiusAëtiusEzio
In 425, the court at Ravenna negotiated with the Huns who had accompanied Flavius Aëtius to Italy in support of Joannes. In addition, the initial period of Valentinian's reign was dominated by the struggle among the leaders of the three principal army groups of the west – Flavius Felix, the senior Magister militum praesentalis, Bonifacius, the Magister militum per Africam and Flavius Aëtius, the Magister militum per Gallias.
It is possible that he had also a daughter, whose husband, Thraustila, avenged Aetius' death by killing emperor Valentinian III.

Theodosius II

TheodosiusEmperor Theodosius IITheodosius II the Younger, the Calligrapher
It was also through his mother's side of the family that he was the nephew of Honorius and first cousin to Theodosius II (the son of Honorius' brother Arcadius), who was eastern emperor for most of Valentinian's life. In either 421 or 423, Valentinian was given the title of Nobilissimus by Honorius, but which was not initially recognized in the eastern court of Theodosius II.
Honorius' sister Galla Placidia and her young son Valentinian fled to Constantinople to seek Eastern assistance and after some deliberation in 424 Theodosius opened the war against Joannes.

Power behind the throne

behind the thronede facto rulerde facto'' dictator
His mother was the younger half-sister of the western emperor Honorius, while his father was at the time a Patrician and the power behind the throne.
Examples of such are Stilicho the general of Emperor Honorius, Aetius, the power behind the throne of Honorius' nephew Valentinian III, Ricimer the puppet master of Emperors Avitus, Majorian, Libius Severus, Procopius Anthemius and Olybrius, and then finally Flavius Orestes, the father of the usurper emperor Romulus Augustulus, and the Germanic chieftain Odoacer, who were the masters in the West during the reigns of Emperor Julius Nepos and then Orestes' son, the aforementioned Romulus.

Caesar (title)

CaesarKayser-i RûmCaesars
To counter this threat to his power, Theodosius belatedly recognised Valentinian's father as Augustus and nominated the 5-year-old Valentinian Caesar of the West in October 23, 424.
It would be revived only nearly three quarters of a century later when Theodosius II used it to mark his nephew Valentinian III before successfully installing him upon the western throne vacated by the boy's other uncle Honorius.

Felix (consul 428)

Flavius FelixFelixFlavius Constantius Felix
Given his minority, the new Augustus ruled under the regency of his mother Galla Placidia, one of whose first acts was to install Felix as the Magister utriusque militiae in the west. In addition, the initial period of Valentinian's reign was dominated by the struggle among the leaders of the three principal army groups of the west – Flavius Felix, the senior Magister militum praesentalis, Bonifacius, the Magister militum per Africam and Flavius Aëtius, the Magister militum per Gallias.
Felix served during the reign of emperors Valentinian III and Theodosius II.

Bonifacius

Count BonifaceBonifatiusBoniface
In addition, the initial period of Valentinian's reign was dominated by the struggle among the leaders of the three principal army groups of the west – Flavius Felix, the senior Magister militum praesentalis, Bonifacius, the Magister militum per Africam and Flavius Aëtius, the Magister militum per Gallias.
An ally of Galla Placidia (regent of Valentinian III), Bonifacius engaged in Roman civil wars on her behalf against the generals Flavius Felix in 427-429 and Flavius Aetius in 432.

Eudocia (daughter of Valentinian III)

EudociaEudoxia
In 438, peace was also achieved with the Suebi in Spain, the same year Valentinian's daughter, Eudocia, was born.
Eudocia or Eudoxia (439 – 466/474?) was the eldest daughter of Roman emperor Valentinian III and his wife, Licinia Eudoxia.

Honorius (emperor)

HonoriusEmperor HonoriusFlavius Honorius
His mother was the younger half-sister of the western emperor Honorius, while his father was at the time a Patrician and the power behind the throne. In either 421 or 423, Valentinian was given the title of Nobilissimus by Honorius, but which was not initially recognized in the eastern court of Theodosius II.
In his final years, Honorius reportedly developed a physical attraction to his half-sister, and in order to escape his unwelcome attentions, Galla Placidia and her children, the future emperor Valentinian III and his sister, Honoria, fled to Constantinople.

Huns

HunnicHunHunnic Empire
In 425, the court at Ravenna negotiated with the Huns who had accompanied Flavius Aëtius to Italy in support of Joannes.
However, in Honoria, sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III, sent Attila a ring and requested his help to escape her betrothal to a senator.

Constantius III

ConstantiusFlavius Constantius
Valentinian was born in the western capital of Ravenna, the only son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Constantius.
Constantius was succeeded by Honorius, who ruled alone until his death in 423, whereupon Valentinian III, Constantius' son, assumed the throne, with Galla Placidia serving as regent.

Nobilissimus

nobelissimosprotonobelissimosnōbelissimos
In either 421 or 423, Valentinian was given the title of Nobilissimus by Honorius, but which was not initially recognized in the eastern court of Theodosius II.
Valentinian III

Placidia

Galla PlacidiaGalla Placidia Valentiniana Minor
Aëtius, whose son had married Valentinian's youngest daughter, Placidia, was murdered by Valentinian on 21 September 454.
Placidia was the second daughter of Valentinian III and Licinia Eudoxia, younger sister of Eudocia, who became the wife of Huneric, son of Gaiseric, king of the Vandals.

Petronius Maximus

PetroniusFlavius Petronius MaximusMaximus
With the Hun invasion thwarted, Valentinian felt secure enough to begin plotting to have Aëtius killed, egged on by Petronius Maximus, a high ranking senator who bore Aëtius a personal grudge and his chamberlain, the eunuch Heraclius.
A wealthy senator and a prominent aristocrat, he was instrumental in the murders of the Western Roman magister militum, Flavius Aëtius, and the Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III.

Battle of the Catalaunian Plains

Battle of ChâlonsCatalaunian PlainsBattle of Chalons
The Roman-Germanic forces met Hunnic forces at the Battle of Châlons, resulting in a victory for Aëtius, who sought to retain his position by allowing Attila and a significant number of his troops to escape.
Other contemporary writers offer different motivations: Justa Grata Honoria, the sister of the emperor Valentinian III, had been betrothed to the former consul Herculanus the year before.

Pope Leo I

Leo ILeo the GreatPope Leo
Valentinian sent Pope Leo I and two leading senators to negotiate with Attila.
Near the end of the reign of Pope Sixtus III, Leo was dispatched at the request of Emperor Valentinian III to settle a dispute between Aëtius, one of Gaul's chief military commanders, and the chief magistrate Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus.

Attila

Attila the HunEtzelAtli
Sometime before 449, Valentinian granted the honorary title of Magister militum of the western empire upon their chieftain, Attila the Hun, and the western court was relieved when he concentrated on raiding the eastern empire's provinces in the Balkans from 441 through to 449.
Thus, the usurper Joannes was able to recruit thousands of Huns for his army against Valentinian III in 424.

Mauretania Tingitana

MauretaniaMauretanianMauritania
The Vandals in Hispania continued their incursions, and, in 429, they commenced their invasion of Mauretania Tingitana.
In 427 AD, the Comes Africae, Bonifacius, rejected an order of recall from the Emperor Valentinian III, and he defeated an army sent against him.

Marcian

Flavius MarcianByzantine emperor of that nameEmperor Marcianus
This embassy, combined with a plague among Attila's troops, the threat of famine, and news that the Eastern Emperor Marcian had launched an attack on Hun homelands along the Danube, forced Attila to turn around and leave Italy.
Marcian was elected without the consultation of the Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III, which has been viewed as a marker of further separation between the Eastern and Western Roman Empires.