# Van der Pauw method

**van der PauwVan der Pauw constant**

The van der Pauw Method is a technique commonly used to measure the resistivity and the Hall coefficient of a sample.wikipedia

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### Hall effect

**Hall coefficientHall-effectCorbino effect**

The van der Pauw Method is a technique commonly used to measure the resistivity and the Hall coefficient of a sample.

The sample inhomogeneity might result in spurious sign of the Hall effect, even in ideal van der Pauw configuration of electrodes.

### Sheet resistance

**ohms per squareSurface resistivityohm per square**

For more details see Van der Pauw method.

### Electrical resistivity and conductivity

**electrical conductivityresistivityconductivity**

The van der Pauw Method is a technique commonly used to measure the resistivity and the Hall coefficient of a sample.

### Electrode

**electrodescathodemicroelectrode**

Its power lies in its ability to accurately measure the properties of a sample of any arbitrary shape, as long as the sample is approximately two-dimensional (i.e. it is much thinner than it is wide), solid (no holes), and the electrodes are placed on its perimeter.

### Perimeter

**Perimeter lengthperimeter of the polygon**

Its power lies in its ability to accurately measure the properties of a sample of any arbitrary shape, as long as the sample is approximately two-dimensional (i.e. it is much thinner than it is wide), solid (no holes), and the electrodes are placed on its perimeter.

### Four-terminal sensing

**Kelvin sensingKelvin connectionfour terminal measurement**

The van der Pauw method employs a four-point probe placed around the perimeter of the sample, in contrast to the linear four point probe: this allows the van der Pauw method to provide an average resistivity of the sample, whereas a linear array provides the resistivity in the sensing direction.

### Charge carrier

**charge carrierscarriersminority carrier**

### Electron mobility

**mobilitycarrier mobilitymobilities**

### Homogeneity and heterogeneity

**heterogeneoushomogeneousheterogeneity**

3. The sample must be homogeneous and isotropic

### Isotropy

**isotropicisotropicallyanisotropic**

3. The sample must be homogeneous and isotropic

### Order of magnitude

**orders of magnitudeorderon the order of**

5. The area of contact of any individual contact should be at least an order of magnitude smaller than the area of the entire sample.

### Ohmic contact

**ohmiccontactsohmic device**

### Thermoelectric effect

**thermoelectricPeltier effectSeebeck effect**

In addition to this, any leads from the contacts should be constructed from the same batch of wire to minimise thermoelectric effects.

### Electric current

**currentelectrical currentcurrents**

The velocity the electrons are traveling at is (see electric current):

### Ohm's law

**ohmicOhmohmic losses**

From these two values, a resistance (for this example, R_{12,34}) can be found using Ohm's law:

### Reciprocity (electromagnetism)

**reciprocalreciprocityreciprocity theorem**

The reciprocity theorem tells us that

### Iterative method

**iterativeiterative methodsiterative algorithm**

In most other scenarios, an iterative method is used to solve the van der Pauw formula numerically for R S.

### Nested intervals

**nested intervals theoremnested interval modelnested sequence of closed intervals**

Instead, nested intervals converge slowly but steadily.

### Magnetic field

**magnetic fieldsmagneticmagnetic flux density**

When a charged particle—such as an electron—is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a Lorentz force proportional to the strength of the field and the velocity at which it is traveling through it.