Vannevar Bush

Bush, VannevarBushV. BushVannebar Bush
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S.wikipedia
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Raytheon

Raytheon CompanySubmarine Signal CompanyRaytheon Corporation
Bush joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1919, and founded the company now known as Raytheon in 1922.
In 1922, two former Tufts University School of Engineering, roommates Laurence K. Marshall and Vannevar Bush, along with scientist Charles G. Smith, founded the American Appliance Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Memex

DARPA's MemexDARPA's Memex programhypertext system
He is known particularly for his engineering work on analog computers, and for the memex.
The memex (originally coined "at random", though sometimes said to be a portmanteau of "memory" and "index" ) is the name of the hypothetical proto-hypertext system that Vannevar Bush described in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article "As We May Think".

As We May Think

The memex and Bush's 1945 essay "As We May Think" influenced generations of computer scientists, who drew inspiration from his vision of the future.
"As We May Think" is a 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush which has been described as visionary and influential, anticipating many aspects of information society.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITM.I.T.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Bush joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1919, and founded the company now known as Raytheon in 1922.
In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios.

Manhattan Project

Manhattan Engineer DistrictThe Manhattan ProjectManhattan District
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including important developments in radar and the initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
Briggs proposed spending $167,000 on research into uranium, particularly the uranium-235 isotope, and plutonium, which was discovered in 1940 at the University of California On 28 June 1941, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8807, which created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), with Vannevar Bush as its director.

Office of Scientific Research and Development

OSRDOffice of Scientific R&DOSRD contracts
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including important developments in radar and the initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
It superseded the work of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), was given almost unlimited access to funding and resources, and was directed by Vannevar Bush, who reported only to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

National Defense Research Committee

NDRCNational Defence Research CommitteeNational Defense Research council
As chairman of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), and later director of OSRD, Bush coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare.
Vannevar Bush, the director of the Carnegie Institution, had pressed for the creation of the NDRC because he had experienced during World War I the lack of cooperation between civilian scientists and the military.

National Science Foundation

NSFNational Science Foundation (NSF)U.S. National Science Foundation
He emphasized the importance of scientific research to national security and economic well-being, and was chiefly responsible for the movement that led to the creation of the National Science Foundation.
Most commonly, this debate is characterized by the conflict between New Deal Senator Harley M. Kilgore and OSRD head Vannevar Bush.

Hypertext

hypertextualityhypertext markupmetatext
The memex, which he began developing in the 1930s, was a hypothetical adjustable microfilm viewer with a structure analogous to that of hypertext.
In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex.

Analog computer

analogue computeranaloganalog computers
He is known particularly for his engineering work on analog computers, and for the memex.
Starting in the 1920s, Vannevar Bush and others developed mechanical differential analyzers.

Harold Locke Hazen

Harold HazenHarold L. HazenHarold L. Hazen, Chief
Another student, Harold Hazen, proposed extending the device to handle second-order differential equations.
In 1924 under the lead of Vannevar Bush, Hazen and his fellow undergraduate Hugh H. Spencer built a prototype AC network analyzer, a special-purpose analog computer for solving problems in interconnected AC power systems.

Claude Shannon

Claude E. ShannonShannonClaude Elwood Shannon
An offshoot of the work at MIT was the beginning of digital circuit design theory by one of Bush's graduate students, Claude Shannon.
In 1936, Shannon began his graduate studies in electrical engineering at MIT, where he worked on Vannevar Bush's differential analyzer, an early analog computer.

Everett, Massachusetts

EverettEverett, MAEast Everett, Massachusetts
Vannevar Bush was born in Everett, Massachusetts, on March 11, 1890, the third child and only son of Perry Bush, the local Universalist pastor, and his wife Emma Linwood (née Paine).

Operational calculus

fractional differential operatorsoperator method
Bush taught binary algebra, circuit theory, and operational calculus according to the methods of Oliver Heaviside while Samuel Wesley Stratton was President of MIT.
the calculation of transients in linear circuits after 1910, under the impulse of Ernst Julius Berg, John Renshaw Carson and Vannevar Bush.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Engineering

School of EngineeringMIT School of EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of Technology
Bush became vice president of MIT and dean of the MIT School of Engineering in 1932, and president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1938.

Parry Moon

holor
Parry Moon and Stratton were acknowledged, as was M.S. Vallarta who "wrote the first set of class notes which I used."
Unfulfilled with his work in transformer design at Westinghouse, Moon obtained a position as research assistant at MIT under Vannevar Bush.

Carnegie Institution for Science

Carnegie Institution of WashingtonCarnegie InstitutionCarnegie Institute
Bush became vice president of MIT and dean of the MIT School of Engineering in 1932, and president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1938.
When the United States joined World War II, Vannevar Bush was president of the Carnegie Institution.

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

NACANational Advisory Committee on AeronauticsChairmen of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Bush was appointed to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1938, and soon became its chairman.

SCR-584 radar

SCR-584K-78 trailerM-9/SCR-584 Anti-Aircraft System
By mid-1941, it had developed SCR-584 radar, a mobile radar fire control system for antiaircraft guns.
In 1940, Vannevar Bush, heading the National Defense Research Committee, established the "Microwave Committee" (section D-1) and the "Fire Control" division (D-2) to develop a more advanced radar anti-aircraft system in time to assist the British air-defense effort.

Chelsea, Massachusetts

ChelseaChelsea, MAChelsea (city)
The family moved to Chelsea, Massachusetts, in 1892, and Bush graduated from Chelsea High School in 1909.

Arthur E. Kennelly

Arthur Edwin KennellyArthur KennellyKennelly
His adviser, Arthur Edwin Kennelly, tried to demand more work from him, but Bush refused, and Kennelly was overruled by the department chairman; Bush received his doctorate in engineering jointly from MIT and Harvard University.
One of his PhD students was Vannevar Bush.

S-1 Executive Committee

Advisory Committee on UraniumS-1 SectionUranium Committee
A small number of projects reported to him directly, such as the S-1 Section.
Vannevar Bush was also doing similar research at the Carnegie Institution.

George B. Pegram

G. B. PegramGeorge PegramGeorge Braxton Pegram
Bush reorganized the committee, strengthening its scientific component by adding Tuve, George B. Pegram, Jesse W. Beams, Ross Gunn and Harold Urey.
They soon found themselves on Vannevar Bush's S-1 Section coordinating technical research.

Eugenics Record Office

Eugenic Records OfficeEugenics Records Office
A major embarrassment to them all was Harry H. Laughlin, the head of the Eugenics Record Office, whose activities Merriam had attempted to curtail without success.
In 1939 the Carnegie Institution's new President, Vannevar Bush, forced Laughlin's retirement and withdrew funding for the ERO entirely, leading to its closure at the end of that year.

Harold G. Bowen Sr.

Harold G. Bowen, Sr.Harold G. BowenHarold Gardiner Bowen Sr.
Bush appointed four leading scientists to the NDRC: Karl Taylor Compton (president of MIT), James B. Conant (president of Harvard University), Frank B. Jewett (president of the National Academy of Sciences and chairman of the Board of Directors of Bell Laboratories), and Richard C. Tolman (dean of the graduate school at Caltech); Rear Admiral Harold G. Bowen, Sr. and Brigadier General George V. Strong represented the military.
He championed vital research, such as Radar, yet his personality conflicts with key figures like Vannevar Bush and Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox ultimately excluded the Navy and NRL from the Manhattan Project.