Varangians

VarangianVolga VikingsVarangian GuardVikingsriverineVarangian peopleVaryagsVikingfinest soldiersGreece
The Varangians (Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people, and others to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.wikipedia
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Kievan Rus'

Kievan RusRus'Rus
The Varangians (Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people, and others to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Kievan Rus' (, Рѹсьскаѧ землѧ ; Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia ) was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finnic peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Varangian Rurik dynasty.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
The Varangians (Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people, and others to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century.

Kiev

KyivKiev, UkraineKyiv, Ukraine
According to the 12th century Kievan Primary Chronicle, a group of Varangians known as the Rus' settled in Novgorod in 862 under the leadership of Rurik.
A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century.

Vikings

VikingNorseDanes
The Varangians (Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people, and others to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
The Slavs and the Byzantines also called them Varangians (варяги, from vàr- "confidence, vow of fealty", related to Old English wær "agreement, treaty, promise", Old High German wara "faithfulness").

Varangian Guard

VarangiansVarangianVarangian Guards
The Varangians (Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people, and others to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Vladimir, who had recently usurped power in Kiev with an army of Varangian warriors, sent 6,000 men to Basil as part of a military assistance agreement.

Rurik dynasty

RurikidRurikidsRurik
Rurik's relative Oleg conquered Kiev in 882 and established the state of Kievan Rus', which was later ruled by Rurik's descendants.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи; Рю́риковичі; Ру́рыкавічы, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.

Ukraine

UkrainianUKRUkrainia
The Varangians (Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people, and others to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
According to the Primary Chronicle the Rus' elite initially consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia.

Oleg of Novgorod

OlegPrince OlegOleg of Kiev
Rurik's relative Oleg conquered Kiev in 882 and established the state of Kievan Rus', which was later ruled by Rurik's descendants.
Oleg of Novgorod (Old East Slavic: Ѡлегъ, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the late 9th and early 10th centuries.

Rurik

RyurikNovgorod RusRiurik
According to the 12th century Kievan Primary Chronicle, a group of Varangians known as the Rus' settled in Novgorod in 862 under the leadership of Rurik. Led by Rurik and his brothers Truvor and Sineus, the invited Varangians (called Rus') settled around the town of Holmgård (Novgorod).
undefined 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod.

Rus' Khaganate

RusRus Khaganateearly Rus
Before Rurik, the Rus' might have ruled an earlier hypothetical polity. Having settled Aldeigja (Ladoga) in the 750s, Scandinavian colonists played an important role in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people and in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate.
The region was also a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers, merchants, and pirates.

Rus' people

Rusthe RusNormanist theory
The Varangians (Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people, and others to Vikings, who between the 9th and 11th centuries ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard. According to the 12th century Kievan Primary Chronicle, a group of Varangians known as the Rus' settled in Novgorod in 862 under the leadership of Rurik. Having settled Aldeigja (Ladoga) in the 750s, Scandinavian colonists played an important role in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people and in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate.
By around the eleventh century, the word Rus was increasingly associated with the principality of Kiev, and the term Varangian was becoming more common as a term for Scandinavians traveling the river-routes.

Garðaríki

GardarikiGardarikeGarðariki
Engaging in trade, piracy, and mercenary activities, Varangians roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, as the areas north of the Black Sea were known in the Norse sagas.
As the Varangians dealt mainly with Northern Rus' lands, their sagas regard the city of Holmsgardr (Holmgarðr, Veliky Novgorod) as the capital of Garðaríki.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
They controlled the Volga trade route (between the Varangians and the Arabs), connecting the Baltic to the Caspian Sea, and the Dnieper and Dniester trade route (between Varangians and the Greeks) leading to the Black Sea and Constantinople.
The medieval Vikings, who had contacts with the empire through their expansion in eastern Europe (Varangians) used the Old Norse name Miklagarðr (from mikill 'big' and garðr 'city'), and later Miklagard and Miklagarth.

Volga trade route

Volgatrade connectionsancient trading route
They controlled the Volga trade route (between the Varangians and the Arabs), connecting the Baltic to the Caspian Sea, and the Dnieper and Dniester trade route (between Varangians and the Greeks) leading to the Black Sea and Constantinople.
The Volga trade route was established by the Varangians (Vikings) who settled in Northwestern Russia in the early 9th century.

Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks

Dnieper trade routeAustrvegrEastern route
They controlled the Volga trade route (between the Varangians and the Arabs), connecting the Baltic to the Caspian Sea, and the Dnieper and Dniester trade route (between Varangians and the Greeks) leading to the Black Sea and Constantinople.
The route from the Varangians to the Greeks was first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle, but its effects were reported much earlier, in the early ninth century when the Byzantines noted newcomers in their regions, the Varangians.

Gothic language

GothicVisigothicGoth.
The reduction of the second part of the word could be parallel to that seen in Old Norse foringi 'leader', correspondent to Old English foregenga and Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌰𐌲𐌰𐌲𐌲𐌾𐌰 fauragaggja 'steward'.
In evaluating medieval texts that mention the Goths, many writers used the word Goths to mean any Germanic people in eastern Europe (such as the Varangians), many of whom certainly did not use the Gothic language as known from the Gothic Bible.

Gnezdovo

Gnyozdovo
Apart from Ladoga and Novgorod, Gnyozdovo and Gotland were major centres for Varangian trade.
The site contains extensive remains of a Slavic-Varangian settlement that flourished in the 10th century as a major trade station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks.

Viking Age

Viking EraVikingViking period
Coinciding with the general decline of the Viking Age, the influx of Scandinavians to Rus' stopped, and Varangians were gradually assimilated by East Slavs by the late 11th century.
The eastern connections of these "Varangians" brought Byzantine silk, a cowrie shell from the Red Sea, and even coins from Samarkand, to Viking York.

Veliky Novgorod

NovgorodNovgorod the GreatPrincipality of Novgorod
According to the 12th century Kievan Primary Chronicle, a group of Varangians known as the Rus' settled in Novgorod in 862 under the leadership of Rurik. Apart from Ladoga and Novgorod, Gnyozdovo and Gotland were major centres for Varangian trade. Led by Rurik and his brothers Truvor and Sineus, the invited Varangians (called Rus') settled around the town of Holmgård (Novgorod).
The Varangian name of the city Holmgård or Holmgard (Holmgarðr or Holmgarðir) is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain.

Gotland

Gotland IslandGotland, SwedenGothland
Apart from Ladoga and Novgorod, Gnyozdovo and Gotland were major centres for Varangian trade.
The Berezan' Runestone, discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangian (Viking) trader named Grani in memory of his business partner Karl.

Novgorod Republic

NovgorodRepublic of NovgorodNovgorodians
Instead, the Varangian ruling classes of the two powerful city-states of Novgorod and Kiev were gradually slavicised by the end of the 11th century.
The Republic prospered as the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League and its Slavic, Baltic and Finnic people were much influenced by the culture of the Viking-Varangians and Byzantine people.

Swedes (Germanic tribe)

SwedesSuionesSwedish
The Primary Chronicle twice names Rus' among the other Varangian peoples, including Swedes, Gutes, "Normans", and "Angles" (Normans was an Old Slavonic term for Norwegians not the Normans, while Angles may be interpreted as Danes, not Anglo-Saxons).
During the Viking Age they constituted the basis of the Varangian subset, the Norsemen that travelled eastwards (see Rus' people).

Sineus and Truvor

SineusTruvor and SineusTruvor
Led by Rurik and his brothers Truvor and Sineus, the invited Varangians (called Rus') settled around the town of Holmgård (Novgorod).
Sineus and Truvor, according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, were the brothers of Rurik of the Varangian Rus tribe.

Staraya Ladoga

LadogaStaraja LadogaOld Ladoga
Apart from Ladoga and Novgorod, Gnyozdovo and Gotland were major centres for Varangian trade. Having settled Aldeigja (Ladoga) in the 750s, Scandinavian colonists played an important role in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people and in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate.
According to the Hypatian Codex that was created at the end of the 13th century, the legendary Varangian leader Rurik arrived at Ladoga in 862 and made it his capital.

Norsemen

NorseNorsemanNorthmen
Coinciding with the general decline of the Viking Age, the influx of Scandinavians to Rus' stopped, and Varangians were gradually assimilated by East Slavs by the late 11th century.
The Slavs and the Byzantines also called them Varangians (, meaning "sworn men"), and the Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard.