Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

vCJDvariant Creutzfeldt-Jakob DiseasevariantCreutzfeldt–Jakob diseaseCreutzfeldt–Jakob variant BSEprion diseasevariant CJDvariant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD)variant form of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease
Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) is a type of brain disease within the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy family.wikipedia
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Prion

prionsprion diseasePrion diseases
It is caused by prions, which are mis-folded proteins.
In humans, prions have been hypothesized as the cause of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), and its variant (vCJD), Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome, "fatal familial insomnia" and kuru.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

BSEmad cow diseasemad cow
Spread is believed to be primarily due to eating bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected beef.
Spread to humans is believed to result in variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD).

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy

transmissible spongiform encephalopathiesprion diseasesspongiform encephalopathy
Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) is a type of brain disease within the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy family.
The variant form of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease is caused by exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions.

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

CJDvariant Creutzfeldt–Jakob diseaseCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease
It is different from classic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, though both are due to prions.
CJD is different from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD).

PRNP

prion proteinCD230mammalian prion protein
The human PRNP protein which is subverted in prion disease can occur with either methionine or valine at amino acid 129, without any apparent difference in normal function.
The misfolded version PrP Sc is associated with a variety of cognitive disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as in animals: ovine scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible mink encephalopathy, ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease which affects Cervidae; and in humans: Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome, kuru, and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.

Jonathan Simms

*Jonathan Simms person who died from vCJD
Jonathan Simms (1984 – 5 March 2011) was a man from Belfast, Northern Ireland, who contracted the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) in his late teens.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
Examination of brain tissue is required to confirm a diagnosis of variant CJD.
Rare prion diseases including Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and its variant, and kuru may also affect the brain.

Central nervous system disease

brain diseasebrain disorderbrain diseases
Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) is a type of brain disease within the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy family.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Symptoms include psychiatric problems, behavioral changes, and painful sensations.

Life expectancy

lifespanlife spanlife expectancies
Average life expectancy following the onset of symptoms is 13 months.

Public health genomics

genetic susceptibilitygenetically susceptibleCanadian Public Health Association
Infection is also believed to require a specific genetic susceptibility.

Blood product

blood productsblood componentsblood-based product
Spread may potentially also occur via blood products or contaminated surgical equipment.

Brain biopsy

biopsybrain biopsies
Diagnosis is by brain biopsy but can be suspected based on certain other criteria.

Therapy

therapeutictreatmenttherapist
Treatment for vCJD involves supportive care.

Edinburgh

Edinburgh, ScotlandCity of EdinburghCity of Edinburgh council area
It was first identified in 1996 by the National CJD Surveillance Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Health Protection Agency

Health Protection Agency’sHPAUK HPA
A 2012 study by the Health Protection Agency showed that around 1 in 2000 people in the UK shows signs of abnormal prion accumulation.

Blood transfusion

transfusionblood transfusionstransfusions
In 2004, a report showed that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusions.

Epidemic

epidemicsplaguepestilence
The finding alarmed healthcare officials because a large epidemic of the disease could result in the near future.

Government of the United Kingdom

British governmentgovernmentUK Government
The UK government banned anyone who had received a blood transfusion since January 1980 from donating blood.

Albumin

albuminsalbuminousalbumin protein
Since 1999 there has been a ban in the UK for using UK blood to manufacture fractional products such as albumin.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
On May 28, 2002, the United States Food and Drug Administration instituted a policy that excludes from donation anyone having spent at least six months in certain European countries (or three months in the United Kingdom) from 1980 to 1996.

New Zealand Blood Service

In New Zealand, the New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) in 2000 introduced measures to preclude permanently donors having resided in the United Kingdom (including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands) for a total of six months or more between January 1980 and December 1996.

Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrishRepublic
In 2003, the NZBS further extended restrictions to permanently preclude donors having received a blood transfusion in the United Kingdom since January 1980, and in April 2006, restrictions were further extended to include the Republic of Ireland and France.

France

🇫🇷FrenchFRA
In 2003, the NZBS further extended restrictions to permanently preclude donors having received a blood transfusion in the United Kingdom since January 1980, and in April 2006, restrictions were further extended to include the Republic of Ireland and France.

Canada

🇨🇦CanadianCAN
In Canada, individuals are not eligible to donate blood or plasma if they have spent a cumulative total of three months or more in the UK or France from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 1996.