Variolation

inoculatedvaccineinoculation against smallpoxsmallpox inoculationsmallpox inoculationsvariolatedvariolous materialvariolous matter
Variolation or inoculation was the method first used to immunize an individual against smallpox (Variola) with material taken from a patient or a recently variolated individual in the hope that a mild, but protective infection would result.wikipedia
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Inoculation

inoculuminoculatedinoculate
In 18th-century medical terminology, inoculation refers to smallpox inoculation.
In English medicine, inoculation referred only to the practice of variolation until the very early 1800s.

Artificial induction of immunity

induced immunityinducing immunitydeliberate actions
Further confusion was caused when, in 1891, Louis Pasteur honoured Jenner by widening the terms vaccine/vaccination to refer to the artificial induction of immunity against any infectious disease.
The earliest recorded artificial induction of immunity in humans was by variolation or inoculation, which is the controlled infection of a subject with a less lethal natural form of smallpox (known as Variola Minor) to make him or her immune to re-infection with the more lethal natural form, Variola Major.

Edward Jenner

JennerJenner, EdwardDr. Edward Jenner
The latter term was first used in 1800 soon after Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine derived from cowpox, an animal disease distinct from smallpox. From the 1760s, a number of individuals, including John Fewster, Peter Plett, Benjamin Jesty, and particularly Edward Jenner, were interested in the use of material from cowpox, an animal infection, to protect against smallpox.
(Crucially this meant that he underwent variolation and not vaccination.) At the age of 14, he was apprenticed for seven years to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire, where he gained most of the experience needed to become a surgeon himself.

Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculation
The latter term was first used in 1800 soon after Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine derived from cowpox, an animal disease distinct from smallpox. It was replaced by smallpox vaccine, a safer alternative.
A method of inducing immunity known as inoculation, insufflation or "variolation" was practiced before the development of a modern vaccine and likely occurred in Africa and China well before the practice arrived in Europe.

Louis Pasteur

PasteurPasteur, LouisPasteurian
Further confusion was caused when, in 1891, Louis Pasteur honoured Jenner by widening the terms vaccine/vaccination to refer to the artificial induction of immunity against any infectious disease.
Inoculation with smallpox (variolation) was known to result in a much less severe disease, and greatly reduced mortality, in comparison with the naturally acquired disease.

Smallpox

small poxsmall-poxvariola
Variolation or inoculation was the method first used to immunize an individual against smallpox (Variola) with material taken from a patient or a recently variolated individual in the hope that a mild, but protective infection would result.
The widespread use of variolation in a few countries, notably Great Britain, its North American colonies, and China, somewhat reduced the impact of smallpox among the wealthy classes during the latter part of the 18th century, but a real reduction in its incidence did not occur until vaccination became a common practice toward the end of the 19th century.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
This in turn led to the development of the many vaccines now available against other diseases.
Prior to the introduction of vaccination with material from cases of cowpox (heterotypic immunisation), smallpox could be prevented by deliberate inoculation of smallpox virus, later referred to as variolation to distinguish it from smallpox vaccination.

Cowpox

cowpox virusCow Poxcow-pox
The latter term was first used in 1800 soon after Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine derived from cowpox, an animal disease distinct from smallpox. From the 1760s, a number of individuals, including John Fewster, Peter Plett, Benjamin Jesty, and particularly Edward Jenner, were interested in the use of material from cowpox, an animal infection, to protect against smallpox.
Popularized by Jenner in the late 1790s, kinepox was a far safer method for inoculating people against smallpox than the previous method, variolation, which had a 3% fatality rate.

Cotton Mather

CottonMathergiving a speech on horseback
Although the article did not gain widespread notoriety, it caught the attention of two important figures in the variolation movement, Bostonian preacher Cotton Mather and the wife of the British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.
Spreading its reach in seventeenth-century Turkey, inoculation or, rather, variolation, involved infecting a person via a cut in the skin with exudate from a patient with a relatively mild case of smallpox (variola), to bring about a manageable and recoverable infection that would provide later immunity.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Mary Wortley MontaguLady Mary PierrepontLady Montagu
Although the article did not gain widespread notoriety, it caught the attention of two important figures in the variolation movement, Bostonian preacher Cotton Mather and the wife of the British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.
Lady Mary returned to the West with knowledge of the Ottoman practice of inoculation against smallpox, known as variolation.

William Woodville

Other prominent English variolators included Thomas Dimsdale who published accounts of his method in 1769 and 1781; William Woodville appointed Director of the London Smallpox and Inoculation Hospital in 1791, who published a history of variolation in 1796; and John Haygarth who published an ambitious plan to exterminate smallpox in 1783.
On 17 March 1791 he was elected physician to the smallpox and inoculation hospitals at St. Pancras, in succession to Edward Archer, and published the first volume of a projected two-part history of inoculation (variolation) in 1796.

Thomas Dimsdale

Thomas, Baron DimsdaleSir Thomas Dimsdale
Other prominent English variolators included Thomas Dimsdale who published accounts of his method in 1769 and 1781; William Woodville appointed Director of the London Smallpox and Inoculation Hospital in 1791, who published a history of variolation in 1796; and John Haygarth who published an ambitious plan to exterminate smallpox in 1783.
Dimsdale developed a particular interest in the prevention of smallpox by inoculation (variolation), a deliberate infection of the patient via the skin with a mild form of the disease to give protection against more virulent strains.

Peter Plett

From the 1760s, a number of individuals, including John Fewster, Peter Plett, Benjamin Jesty, and particularly Edward Jenner, were interested in the use of material from cowpox, an animal infection, to protect against smallpox.
In 1790 and again in 1791/92, Plett reported his success to the medical faculty of the University of Kiel, but they favoured the older method of variolation so they did not act on the reports.

John Fewster

From the 1760s, a number of individuals, including John Fewster, Peter Plett, Benjamin Jesty, and particularly Edward Jenner, were interested in the use of material from cowpox, an animal infection, to protect against smallpox.
In 1768, Fewster noted that two brothers (named Creed) had both been variolated (purposefully infected with smallpox) but that one did not react at all to variolation.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
The term variolation refers solely to inoculation with smallpox virus and is not interchangeable with vaccination.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfectious
Further confusion was caused when, in 1891, Louis Pasteur honoured Jenner by widening the terms vaccine/vaccination to refer to the artificial induction of immunity against any infectious disease.

Insufflation (medicine)

insufflationinsufflatedsnorted
They implemented a method of "nasal insufflation" administered by blowing powdered smallpox material, usually scabs, up the nostrils.

Ritual

ritualsreligious ritualritualistic
The practice of variolation is believed to have been ritualized by the Chinese.

Royal Society

FRSFellow of the Royal SocietyRoyal Society of London
Two reports on the Chinese practice were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700; one by Dr. Martin Lister who received a report by an employee of the East India Company stationed in China and another by Clopton Havers.

Martin Lister

Dr. Martin ListerLister
Two reports on the Chinese practice were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700; one by Dr. Martin Lister who received a report by an employee of the East India Company stationed in China and another by Clopton Havers.

East India Company

British East India CompanyBritishHonourable East India Company
Two reports on the Chinese practice were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700; one by Dr. Martin Lister who received a report by an employee of the East India Company stationed in China and another by Clopton Havers.

Clopton Havers

Havers, Clopton
Two reports on the Chinese practice were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700; one by Dr. Martin Lister who received a report by an employee of the East India Company stationed in China and another by Clopton Havers.

Sudan

🇸🇩SudaneseRepublic of the Sudan
Two similar methods were described in Sudan during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Sennar

channarSannarSennaar
Tishteree el Jidderi ("buying the smallpox") was a practice seen within the women of Sennar in Central Sudan.

Bargaining

hagglingbargainhaggle
She would then haggle with the child's mother over the cost of each pustule.