Vedas

VedicVedaVedic literatureVedic textsVedic scripturesVedic philosophyVedic hymnsVedic studiesVedic traditionupaveda
The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.wikipedia
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History of India

ancient IndiaIndiaIndian history
The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.
The resulting Vedic period was marked by the composition of the Vedas, large collections of hymns of these tribes whose postulated religious culture, through synthesis with the preexisting religious cultures of the subcontinent, gave rise to Hinduism.

Vedic Sanskrit

VedicSanskritRigvedic Sanskrit
Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
It is attested in the Vedas, texts compiled over the period of the mid-2nd to mid-1st millennium BCE.

Hindu texts

Hindu scripturesHindu scriptureHindu literature
Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
These include the Vedas and the Upanishads.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
These texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, Vedic yajna, Yoga, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics.

Rishi

Rishissageṛṣi
The Vedic hymns themselves assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis (sages), after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot.
Rishis have composed hymns of the Shrutis (Vedas) and Smritis (Upanishads, Ramayan and Mahabharat).

Brahma

Lord BrahmaBrahmāBramha
In the Hindu Epic the Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma.
He is also known as Svayambhu (self-born) or the creative aspect of Vishnu, Vāgīśa (Lord of Speech), and the creator of the four Vedas, one from each of his mouths.

Vyasa

Krishna Dwaipayana VyasaVeda VyasaVedavyasa
According to tradition, Vyasa is the compiler of the Vedas, who arranged the four kinds of mantras into four Samhitas (Collections).
Vyasa (व्यास, literally "Compiler") is the legendary author of the Mahabharata, Vedas and Puranas, some of the most important works in the Hindu tradition.

Yajurveda

Krishna YajurvedaYajur VedaShukla Yajurveda
There are four Vedas: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda.
Yajurveda is one of the four Vedas, and one of the scriptures of Hinduism.

Rigveda

Rig VedaRigvedicRig-Veda
There are four Vedas: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda.
It is one of the four sacred canonical texts (śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas.

Atharvaveda

Atharva VedaAtharva-VedaAtharva
There are four Vedas: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda.
The text is the fourth Veda, but has been a late addition to the Vedic scriptures of Hinduism.

Apauruṣeyā

apaurusheyatvaapauruṣeyaapaurusheya
Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless".
, or "impersonal, authorless", is a context used to describe the Vedas, the earliest scripture in Hinduism.

Samaveda

Sama VedaJaiminiya BrahmanaJaiminiya
There are four Vedas: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda.
One of the four Vedas, it is a liturgical text which consists of 1,549 verses.

Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosopherdarsanasDarshanas
The various Indian philosophies and denominations have taken differing positions on the Vedas.
These are also called the Astika (orthodox) philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas as an authoritative, important source of knowledge.

Śramaṇa

SramanaShramanaSramanic
Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Carvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools.
The term in early Vedic literature is predominantly used as an epithet for the Rishis with reference to Shrama associated with the ritualistic exertion.

Āstika and nāstika

AstikaĀstikaNastika
Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Carvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools. Schools of India philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority are classified as "orthodox" (āstika).
Āstika has been defined in one of three ways; as those who accept the epistemic authority of the Vedas, as those who accept the existence of ātman, or as those who accept the existence of Ishvara.

Upasana

method
Some scholars add a fifth category – the Upasanas (worship).
The term also refers to one of three (खण्ड, parts) of Vedas, one that focuses on worship.

Hindu denominations

Hindu denominationdenominationsHindu sects
The various Indian philosophies and denominations have taken differing positions on the Vedas.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Carvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools.
Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama (Sanskrit: Arada Kalama) and Uddaka Ramaputta (Sanskrit: Udraka Ramaputra), learning meditation and ancient philosophies, particularly the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, and "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.

Sanskrit literature

SanskritSanskrit poetryClassical Sanskrit literature
Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.
Hindu Sanskrit texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions of Shruti, namely the Vedas and the early Upanishads.

Vedic period

VedicVedic civilizationVedic age
The Samhitas date to roughly 1700–1100 BCE, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. 1000–500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
It gets its name from the Vedas, which are liturgical texts containing details of life during this period that have been interpreted to be historical and constitute the primary sources for understanding the period.

Shakha

AshvalayanashakhasVedic scholar
The Samhitas date to roughly 1700–1100 BCE, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. 1000–500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.
A shakha (Sanskrit, "branch" or "limb"), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.

Samhita

SamhitasManusamhitaSaṃhita
Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types – the Samhitas (mantras and benedictions), the Aranyakas (text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices), the Brahmanas (commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and the Upanishads (texts discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge).
Samhita also refers to the most ancient layer of text in the Vedas, consisting of mantras, hymns, prayers, litanies and benedictions.

Brahmana

BrahmanasBrāhmaṇaBrāhmaṇas
Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types – the Samhitas (mantras and benedictions), the Aranyakas (text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices), the Brahmanas (commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and the Upanishads (texts discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge).
The Brahmanas (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇam) are a collection of ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.

Vedic chant

Vedic chantingVedic hymnsmnemonic techniques
Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition, preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques.
The oral tradition of the Vedas (Śruti) consists of several pathas, "recitations" or ways of chanting the Vedic mantras.