Vedic Sanskrit

VedicSanskritRigvedic SanskritVed.ancient SanskritSktVedic languageOld Indicpost-RigvedicRigvedic
Vedic Sanskrit was an ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European languages.wikipedia
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Vedas

VedicVedaVedic literature
It is attested in the Vedas, texts compiled over the period of the mid-2nd to mid-1st millennium BCE.
Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.

Avestan

Avestan languageOld AvestanAv.
Quite early in the pre-historic era, Sanskrit separated from the Avestan language, an Eastern Iranian language.
As such, Old Avestan is quite close in grammar and lexicon with Vedic Sanskrit, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan language.

Proto-Indo-Iranian language

Proto-Indo-IranianIndo-IranianPIIr.
Extensive ancient literature in the Vedic Sanskrit language has survived into the modern era, and this has been a major source of information for reconstructing Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Indo-Iranian history.
Proto-Indo-Iranian was a satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from its ancestor, the late Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn removed less than a millennium from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda, its descendant.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Vedic Sanskrit was an ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European languages.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
Vedic Sanskrit developed independently in ancient India, evolved into classical Sanskrit after the grammar and linguistic treatise of Pāṇini, and later into many related Indian subcontinent languages in which are found the voluminous ancient and medieval literature of Buddhism, Hinduism and, Jainism.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest-known composition.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley CivilizationHarappanIndus Valley
He assumes early Indo-Aryan presence in the Late Harappan horizon from about 1900 BCE, and "Proto-Rigvedic" (Proto-Dardic) intrusion to the Punjab as corresponding to the Gandhara grave culture from about 1700 BCE.
A section of scholars use the terms "Sarasvati culture", the "Sarasvati Civilisation", the "Indus-Sarasvati Civilisation" or the "Sindhu-Saraswati Civilisation", because they consider the Ghaggar-Hakra river to be the same as the Sarasvati, a river mentioned several times in the Rig Veda, a collection of ancient Sanskrit hymns composed in the second millennium BCE.

Iranian languages

IranianOld IranianIranian language
Quite early in the pre-historic era, Sanskrit separated from the Avestan language, an Eastern Iranian language.
The Old Avestan dialect is very archaic, and at roughly the same stage of development as Rigvedic Sanskrit.

Samaveda

Sama VedaJaiminiya BrahmanaJaiminiya
While its earliest parts are believed to date from as early as the Rigvedic period, the existing compilation dates from the post-Rigvedic Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit, c. 1200 or 1000 BCE, roughly contemporary with the Atharvaveda and the Yajurveda.

Dardic languages

DardicDardic languageKohistani
According to this model, Rigvedic within the larger Indo-Aryan group is the direct ancestor of the Dardic languages.
According to a model proposed by Asko Parpola, the Dardic languages are directly descended from the Rigvedic dialect of Vedic Sanskrit.

Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-EuropeanPIEIndo-European
Extensive ancient literature in the Vedic Sanskrit language has survived into the modern era, and this has been a major source of information for reconstructing Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Indo-Iranian history.
The accent is best preserved in Vedic Sanskrit and (in the case of nouns) Ancient Greek, and indirectly attested in a number of phenomena in other IE languages.

Yajurveda

Krishna YajurvedaYajur VedaShukla Yajurveda
The core text of the Yajurveda falls within the classical Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit at the end of the 2nd millennium BCE - younger than the Rigveda, and roughly contemporary with the Atharvaveda, the Rigvedic Khilani, and the [[Samaveda|]].

Atharvaveda

Atharva VedaAtharva-VedaAtharva
The core text of the Atharvaveda falls within the classical Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit, during the 2nd millennium BC - younger than the Rigveda, and roughly contemporary with the Yajurveda mantras, the Rigvedic Khilani, and the [[Samaveda|]].

Khilani

Rig Vedic khilanis
They are late additions to the text of the Rigveda, but still belong to the "Mantra" period of Vedic Sanskrit, contemporary with the Atharvaveda, Yajurveda, and Samaveda, estimated to fall within the range of c. 1200–1000 BCE.

Pitch-accent language

pitch accentpitchaccent
Languages that have been described as pitch-accent languages include most dialects of Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Baltic languages, Ancient Greek, Vedic Sanskrit, Turkish, Japanese, Norwegian, Swedish, Western Basque, Yaqui, certain dialects of Korean, and Shanghainese.

Rigveda

Rig VedaRigvedicRig-Veda
The date of composition of the oldest hymns of the Rigveda is vague at best, generally estimated to between 2000 and 1500 BCE.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद ', from ' "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

Kalpa (Vedanga)

GrhyasutraKalpaGrhyasutras
Some early Śrautasūtras were composed in the late Brahmana period (such as the Baudhyanana and Vadhula Sūtras), but the bulk of the Śrautasūtras are roughly contemporary to the Gṛhya corpus of domestic sūtras, their language being late Vedic Sanskrit, dating to the middle of the first millennium BCE (generally predating Pāṇini).

Vedic accent

accentanudāttaindependent svarita
The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic accent for brevity, is traditionally divided by Sanskrit grammarians into three qualities, udātta "raised" (acute accent, high pitch), anudātta "not raised" (unstressed, or low pitch, grave accent) and svarita "sounded" (high falling pitch, corresponds to the Latin circumflex accent).

Brahmana

BrahmanasBrāhmaṇaBrāhmaṇas
The language of the Brahmanas is a separate stage of Vedic Sanskrit, younger than the text of the samhitas (the mantra texts of the Vedas proper), ca.

Proto-Indo-European accent

accentPIE accentaccent shifts
As one can see, the placement of the reconstructed PIE accent is reflected in Vedic Sanskrit basically intact.

Vedic Sanskrit grammar

grammar of the Vedic languageVedicVedic Grammar
Vedic Sanskrit is the Indo-Aryan language used in the religious hymns known as the Vedas, composed from the early-to-mid 2nd millennium through to the mid 1st millennium, BCE.

Mitanni-Aryan

Indo-Aryan superstrate in MitanniAncient Mitannidocuments
Kikkuli's horse training text (circa 1400 BC) includes technical terms such as aika (Vedic Sanskrit eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pañca, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, round).

A Vedic Word Concordance

A Vedic ConcordanceVishveshvaranand Institute of Sanskrit and Indological Studies
A Vedic Word Concordance (Sanskrit: ) is a multi-volume concordance of the corpus of Vedic Sanskrit texts.

Indo-Aryan languages

Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan languageIndic
Vedic Sanskrit was an ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan.

Pluti

O3pluta
The pluti attained the peak of their popularity in the Brahmana period of late Vedic Sanskrit (roughly 8th century BC), with some 40 instances in the Shatapatha Brahmana alone.