Veganism

veganvegansvegan dietmoral vegetarianismvegan foodstrict vegetarianismvegan lifestyleplant-based dietstrict vegetarianvegan diets
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.wikipedia
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Animal product

animal productsanimal by-productsslaughterhouse waste
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Other diets, such as veganism and the raw vegan diet, exclude any material of animal origin.

Vitamin B12

vitamin B 12 cobalaminB12
Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and phytochemicals; and lower in dietary energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B 12 . Unbalanced vegan diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and may cause serious health issues.
Because there are no reliable vegetable sources of the vitamin, vegans must use a supplement or fortified foods for B 12 intake or risk serious health consequences.

Donald Watson

Donald Watson, artist
Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944 when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England.
Donald Watson (2 September 1910 – 16 November 2005) was an English animal rights advocate who coined the word vegan and founded the Vegan Society.

Amos Bronson Alcott

Bronson AlcottAlcottA. Bronson Alcott
In Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of the novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844, and in England, James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common, in 1838.
He hoped to perfect the human spirit and, to that end, advocated a vegan diet before the term was coined.

Plamil Foods

In 1956, its vice-president, Leslie Cross, founded the Plantmilk Society; and in 1965, as Plantmilk Ltd and later Plamil Foods, it began production of one of the first widely distributed soy milks in the Western world.
Plamil Foods Ltd is a British manufacturer of vegan food products.

World Vegan Day

World Vegan Day is held every 1 November to mark the founding of the Society and the month of November is considered by the Society to be World Vegan Month.
World Vegan Day is an annual event celebrated by vegans around the world every 1 November.

The Vegan Society

Vegan SocietyThe Vegan Society (UK)The Vegan Society (United Kingdom)
Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944 when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England.
Watson coined the word "vegan" to stand for "non-dairy vegetarians" who also ate no eggs.

Soy milk

soymilksoya milkSoy Beverage
In 1956, its vice-president, Leslie Cross, founded the Plantmilk Society; and in 1965, as Plantmilk Ltd and later Plamil Foods, it began production of one of the first widely distributed soy milks in the Western world.
Along with similar vegetable-based "milks", like almond and rice milk, soy milk may be used as a substitute for dairy milk by individuals who are vegan or lactose intolerant.

Commodity status of animals

commoditiesproperty statustrading with animals
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
The vegan and animal rights movements, chiefly the abolitionist approach, of the twentieth century calls for eliminating the commodity or property status of animals.

Fluff Fest

This association continues on into the 21st century, as evinced by the prominence of vegan punk events such as Fluff Fest in Europe.
A significant event for the DIY music scene of the Czech Republic and the punk subculture of Europe, it is associated with movements such as veganism, anarchism, feminism, anti-fascism, and straight edge.

Neal D. Barnard

Neal Barnard
The following decades saw research by a group of scientists and doctors in the United States, including physicians Dean Ornish, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal D. Barnard, John A. McDougall, Michael Greger, and biochemist T. Colin Campbell, who argued that diets based on animal fat and animal protein, such as the Western pattern diet, were detrimental to health.
He received his medical training at George Washington University School of Medicine in psychiatry, where he began to explore vegan diets.

Straight edge

straight-edgevegan straight edgestraight edge hardcore
In the 1980s, veganism became associated with punk subculture and ideologies, particularly straight edge hardcore punk in the United States; and anarcho-punk in the United Kingdom.
For some, this extends to refraining from engaging in promiscuous sex, following a vegetarian or vegan diet or not using caffeine or prescription drugs.

Al-Maʿarri

al-Ma'arriAbu ibn Abd Allah al-Ma'arriAbul 'Ala Al-Ma'arri
One of the earliest known vegans was the Arab poet al-Maʿarri . Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare, and the view—espoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium ("On Abstinence from Animal Food", )—that if humans deserve justice, then so do animals.
He became a vegan, entreating: "do not desire as food the flesh of slaughtered animals / Or the white milk of mothers who intended its pure draught /for their young".

Michael Greger

Dr. Michael Greger
The following decades saw research by a group of scientists and doctors in the United States, including physicians Dean Ornish, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal D. Barnard, John A. McDougall, Michael Greger, and biochemist T. Colin Campbell, who argued that diets based on animal fat and animal protein, such as the Western pattern diet, were detrimental to health.
He is a vegan.

Forks Over Knives

This was followed by the film Earthlings (2005), Campbell's The China Study (2005), Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin's Skinny Bitch (2005), Jonathan Safran Foer's Eating Animals (2009), and the film Forks over Knives (2011).
This is sometimes confused with a vegan diet, which in practice can be very different.

Veganz

In 2011, Europe's first vegan supermarkets appeared in Germany: Vegilicious in Dortmund and Veganz in Berlin.
Veganz GmbH is the first vegan supermarket chain in Europe.

Joanne Stepaniak

According to Joanne Stepaniak, the word vegan was first published independently in 1962 by the Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, defined as "a vegetarian who eats no butter, eggs, cheese, or milk".
Joanne "Jo" Stepaniak (born 1954) is an American writer specializing in veganism and nutrition.

Vegetarian Society

London Vegetarian SocietyThe Vegetarian SocietyJapan Vegetarian Society
Alcott House also helped to establish the UK Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent.
Pupils at the school followed a diet completely free of animal products, known today as a vegan diet.

Skinny Bitch

This was followed by the film Earthlings (2005), Campbell's The China Study (2005), Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin's Skinny Bitch (2005), Jonathan Safran Foer's Eating Animals (2009), and the film Forks over Knives (2011).
The book advocates a purely vegan diet and includes sections on factory farming and animal cruelty.

Thiruvalluvar

ValluvarThiruvalluvar DayTiruppan
Early vegetarians included Indian philosophers such as Mahavira and Acharya Kundakunda, the Tamil poet Valluvar, the Indian emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka; Greek philosophers such as Empedocles, Theophrastus, Plutarch, Plotinus, and Porphyry; and the Roman poet Ovid and the playwright Seneca the Younger.
In particular, his treatment of the chapters on strict vegetarianism (or veganism) (Chapters 26 and 32) and non-killing (Chapter 33) reflects the Jain precepts, where these are stringently enforced.

American Vegan Society

In 1960, H. Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS), linking veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit.
The American Vegan Society (AVS) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that promotes veganism in the United States.

H. Jay Dinshah

Jay Dinshah
In 1960, H. Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS), linking veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit.
A lifelong vegetarian, Dinshah became vegan in 1957.

Earthlings (film)

EarthlingsEarthlings'' (film)
This was followed by the film Earthlings (2005), Campbell's The China Study (2005), Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin's Skinny Bitch (2005), Jonathan Safran Foer's Eating Animals (2009), and the film Forks over Knives (2011).
The film is narrated by Joaquin Phoenix, features music by Moby, was directed by Shaun Monson, Executive Produced by Libra Max and was co-produced by Maggie Q, all of whom are vegan.

John Robbins (author)

John RobbinsEarthSave InternationalJohn
They produced a series of books that recommend vegan or vegetarian diets, including McDougall's The McDougall Plan (1983), John Robbins's Diet for a New America (1987), which associated meat eating with environmental damage, and Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease (1990).
In the book he advocates a plant-based vegan diet.

Punk ideologies

punkpunk ideologyanti-authoritarian ideologies
In the 1980s, veganism became associated with punk subculture and ideologies, particularly straight edge hardcore punk in the United States; and anarcho-punk in the United Kingdom.
Consequently, vegetarianism and veganism became a feature of the punk subculture.