Vegetarianism

vegetarianvegetariansvegetarian dietvegetarian restaurantplant-based dietstop eating meatvegetarian standardsabstaining from eating meatabstaining from meatabstinence from all forms of meat
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.wikipedia
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Meat

meatsmeat consumptionprocessed meat
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
Many religions have rules about which meat may or may not be eaten, and vegetarian people abstain from eating meat because of concerns about the ethics of eating meat or about the effects of meat production or consumption.

Vegetarianism and religion

religiousreligious beliefsreligious prohibition of beef consumption
Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, as well as animal rights advocacy.
In Jainism, vegetarianism is mandatory for everyone; in Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism, it is advocated by some influential scriptures and religious authorities.

Environmental vegetarianism

environmentalenvironmental concernsby being vegetarian
Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference.
Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of vegetarianism or eating a plant-based diet based on the indications that animal-based industries are environmentally destructive or unsustainable.

Economic vegetarianism

economic
Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference.
An economic vegetarian is a person who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint that the consumption of meat is expensive, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just because of necessity.

Animal product

animal productsanimal by-productsslaughterhouse waste
A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy.
Several diets prohibit the inclusion of some animal products, including vegetarian, kosher, and halal.

Vegetarian Society

London Vegetarian SocietyThe Vegetarian SocietyJapan Vegetarian Society
The common-use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led vegetarian groups such as the Vegetarian Society to state that diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian, because fish and birds are also animals.
The Vegetarian Society is a British registered charity which was established on 30 September 1847 to promote vegetarianism.

Jain vegetarianism

JainsvegetarianVegetarianism
Parshwanatha and Mahavira, the 23rd & 24th tirthankaras in Jainism respectively revived and advocated ahimsa and Jain vegetarianism in 8th to 6th century BC; the most comprehensive and strictest form of vegetarianism.
The Jain cuisine is completely vegetarian and also excludes underground vegetables such as garlic, etc, to prevent injuring small insects and microorganisms; and also to prevent the entire plant getting uprooted and killed.

Pythagoras

PythagoreanPythagoreansPythagoras of Samos
Greek teacher Pythagoras, who promoted the altruistic doctrine of metempsychosis, may have practiced vegetarianism, but is also recorded as eating meat.
This lifestyle entailed a number of dietary prohibitions, traditionally said to have included vegetarianism, although modern scholars doubt that he ever advocated for complete vegetarianism.

James Pierrepont Greaves

The earliest occurrences of the term seem to be related to Alcott House—a school on the north side of Ham Common, London—which was opened in July 1838 by James Pierrepont Greaves.
He described himself as a "sacred socialist" and was an advocate of vegetarianism and other health practices.

Buddhist vegetarianism

vegetarian lifestylevegetariansBuddhist
Buddhist vegetarianism. Different Buddhist traditions have differing teachings on diet, which may also vary for ordained monks and nuns compared to others. Many interpret the precept "not to kill" to require abstinence from meat, but not all. In Taiwan, su vegetarianism excludes not only all animal products but also vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots.
Buddhist vegetarianism is the belief that following a vegetarian diet is implied in the Buddha's teaching.

Ovo-lacto vegetarianism

ovo-lacto vegetarianovo-lacto vegetarianslacto-ovo vegetarian
There are variations of the diet as well: an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs.
An ovo-lacto vegetarian or lacto-ovo vegetarian is a vegetarian who consumes some animal products, such as eggs and dairy.

Ovo vegetarianism

ovo vegetarianovo vegetariansovo-vegetarian
There are variations of the diet as well: an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs.
Ovo vegetarianism is a type of vegetarianism which allows for the consumption of eggs but not dairy products, in contrast with lacto vegetarianism.

Veganism

veganvegansvegan diet
A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy.
Dietary vegans (or strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances.

Pescetarianism

pescetarianpescatarianpescetarians
A pescetarian diet has been described as "fish but no other meat".
Those on pescetarian or pollotarian diets may define meat only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism.

Nonviolence

nonviolentnon-violencenon-violent
In Indian culture, vegetarianism has been closely connected with the attitude of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) for millennia and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.
This might include abolitionism against animals as property, the practice of not eating animal products or by-products (vegetarianism or veganism), spiritual practices of non-harm to all beings, and caring for the rights of all beings.

Animal rights

animal rights activistrightsanimal rights activists
Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, as well as animal rights advocacy.
In 2014, the Jain pilgrimage destination of Palitana City in Indian state of Gujarat became the first city in the world to be legally vegetarian.

Plant-based diet

plant-basedfruit-based dietplant based diet
Sattvic diet (also known as yogic diet), a plant-based diet which may also include dairy and honey, but excludes eggs, red lentils, durian, mushrooms, alliums, blue cheeses, fermented foods or sauces, and alcoholic drinks. Coffee, black or green tea, chocolate, nutmeg, and any other type of stimulant (including excessively pungent spices) are sometimes excluded, as well.
The use of the phrase has changed over time, and examples can be found of the phrase "plant-based diet" being used to refer to vegan diets, which contain no food from animal sources, to vegetarian diets which include eggs and dairy but no meat, and to diets with varying amounts of animal-based foods, such as semi-vegetarian diets which contain small amounts of meat.

Ahimsa

non-violencegenerally pacifist traditionnon-harming
Parshwanatha and Mahavira, the 23rd & 24th tirthankaras in Jainism respectively revived and advocated ahimsa and Jain vegetarianism in 8th to 6th century BC; the most comprehensive and strictest form of vegetarianism. In Indian culture, vegetarianism has been closely connected with the attitude of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) for millennia and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers.
The Kural dedicates Chapters 26, 32 and 33 of Book I to the virtue of Ahimsa, namely, vegetarianism, non-harming, and non-killing, respectively.

Vitamin B12 deficiency

vitamin B 12 deficiencyVitamin B12B 12
According to some studies, a vegetarian lifestyle can be associated with vitamin B 12 deficiency and low bone mineral density.
Decreased intake may occur in vegetarians or people who are malnourished.

Protein combining

combinationcombine foods during mealscombined constituent
However, the essential amino acids can also be obtained by eating a variety of complementary plant sources that, in combination, provide all eight essential amino acids (e.g. brown rice and beans, or hummus and pita, though protein combining in the same meal is not necessary).
According to the theory, vegetarian and vegan diets may provide an insufficient amount of some essential amino acids, making protein combining with multiple foods necessary to obtain a complete protein.

Marshmallow

marshmallowsfluffy confectionguimauve
Packaged and processed foods, such as cakes, cookies, candies, chocolate, yogurt, and marshmallows, often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients, so may be a special concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such additions.
Vegans and vegetarians avoid gelatin, but there are versions which use a substitute non-animal gelling agent such as agar.

Rennet

animal rennetenzymeanimal enzymes
For example, while some vegetarians may be unaware of animal-derived rennet's role in the production of cheese, and may therefore unknowingly consume the product, other vegetarians may not take issue with its consumption.
Cheeses produced this way are suitable for vegetarians, provided no animal-based alimentation was used during the production.

Asceticism

asceticasceticsascetical
Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish.
Jain ascetics follow a strict vegetarian diet without root vegetables.

Docosahexaenoic acid

DHAdocosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid
Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.
DHA manufactured using microalgae is vegetarian.

Ethics of eating meat

ethicalethical vegetarianeating meat
Many people object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life.
Ethical vegetarians and ethical vegans may also object to the practices underlying the production of meat, or cite their concerns about animal welfare, animal rights, environmental ethics, and religious reasons.