Veliky Novgorod

NovgorodNovgorod the GreatPrincipality of NovgorodVelikiy NovgorodGreat NovgorodHolmgardNovogrodNovgorodianVeliki NovgorodHolmgård
Veliky Novgorod, also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod (meaning "newtown"), is one of the oldest and most important historic cities in Russia, with more than 1000 years of history.wikipedia
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Novgorod Oblast

NovgorodNovgorod regionHistory of Novgorod Oblast
The city serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Its administrative center is the city of Veliky Novgorod.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
Veliky Novgorod, also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod (meaning "newtown"), is one of the oldest and most important historic cities in Russia, with more than 1000 years of history.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus.

Novgorod Republic

NovgorodRepublic of NovgorodNovgorodians
At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the Novgorod Republic and was one of Europe's largest cities.
The Novgorod Republic or Novgorodian Rus' (Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę, Novgorod land; Novogardie or ) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the northern Ural Mountains in the east, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.

Nizhny Novgorod

GorkyNizhniy NovgorodNizhni Novgorod
The "Veliky" ("great") part was eventually added to city's name to disambiguate it with another city of similar name, Nizhny Novgorod ("lower newtown").
Novgorodian is inappropriate; it refers to a resident of Veliky Novgorod, in northwestern Russia.

Lake Ilmen

IlmenIl'men lakeIlmen Lake
The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
The city of Novgorod - which is a major trade-center of the route - lies six kilometers below the lake's outflow.

Volkhov River

VolkhovRiver Volkhovriver
The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
The city of Veliky Novgorod, the towns of Kirishi, Volkhov and Novaya Ladoga, and the historically important village of Staraya Ladoga are located along the Volkhov.

Moscow

Moscow, RussiaMoscow, Soviet UnionMoskva
The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
Daniel came of age in the 1270s and became involved in the power struggles of the principality with lasting success, siding with his brother Dmitry in his bid for the rule of Novgorod.

Varangians

VarangianVolga VikingsVarangian Guard
The Varangian name of the city Holmgård or Holmgard (Holmgarðr or Holmgarðir) is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain.
According to the 12th century Kievan Primary Chronicle, a group of Varangians known as the Rus' settled in Novgorod in 862 under the leadership of Rurik.

Rurikovo Gorodische

Holmgård HillRurik hillfort
Originally, Holmgård referred to the stronghold, now only 2 km to the south of the center of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische (named in comparatively modern times after the Varangian chieftain Rurik, who supposedly made it his "capital" around 860).
Rurikovo Gorodische, known in Scandinavian sources as Holmgård, was the original 9th century settlement of Veliky Novgorod.

Kievan Rus'

Kievan RusRus'Rus
First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod (and that of other cities within the territory of the then Kievan Rus') occurs in the 10th-century policy manual De Administrando Imperio by Byzantine emperor Constantine VII. In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'.
He extended his control from Novgorod south along the Dnieper river valley to protect trade from Khazar incursions from the east, and he moved his capital to the more strategic Kiev.

Christianization of Kievan Rus'

Baptism of Rus'Baptism of KievBaptism of Rus
The oldest archaeological excavations in the middle to late 20th century, however, have found cultural layers dating back to the late 10th century, the time of the Christianization of Rus' and a century after it was allegedly founded.
Allegedly Saint Andrew traveled also north along the Dnieper River, where Kiev would be founded around the 5th century, and as far north as the future location of Veliky Novgorod.

Rurik

RyurikNovgorod RusRiurik
Originally, Holmgård referred to the stronghold, now only 2 km to the south of the center of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische (named in comparatively modern times after the Varangian chieftain Rurik, who supposedly made it his "capital" around 860).
undefined 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod.

Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks

Dnieper trade routeAustrvegrEastern route
The Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly already a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks.
Then it followed the Volkhov River upstream past the towns of Staraya Ladoga and Velikiy Novgorod, crossed Lake Ilmen, and continued up the Lovat River, the Kunya River and possibly the.

Vladimir the Great

Vladimir I of KievVladimir IVladimir
Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav the Wise, who sat as Prince of Novgorod from 1010 to 1019, while his father, Vladimir the Great, was a prince in Kiev.
After the death of his father in 972, Vladimir, who was then prince of Novgorod, was forced to flee to Scandinavia in 976 after his brother Yaropolk had murdered his other brother Oleg and conquered Rus'.

Oleg of Novgorod

OlegPrince OlegOleg of Kiev
In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'.
He is credited by Rus' Chronicles with moving from either Staraya Ladoga or Novgorod the Great, and seizing power in Kiev from Askold, and by doing so, laying the foundation of the powerful state of Kievan Rus'.

Gostomysl

When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin, and Ostromir.
Gostomysl is a fictitious 9th-century posadnik of Novgorod who was introduced into the historiography by Vasily Tatishchev, an 18th-century historian.

Vladimir of Novgorod

Vladimir YaroslavichVladimirVladimir Yaroslavovich
His son, Vladimir, sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral, more accurately translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day.
Vladimir Yaroslavich (Владимир Ярославич, Old Norse Valdamarr Jarizleifsson; 1020 – October 4, 1052) reigned as prince of Novgorod from 1036 until his death.

Konstantin Dobrynich

Konstantin
When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin, and Ostromir.
Konstantin Dobrynich (died 1022) was an 11th-century posadnik of Novgorod.

Russkaya Pravda

first East Slavic law codeJustice of the RusLaw of Yaroslavl
Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws (later incorporated into Russkaya Pravda) among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they often referred to in later centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes.
This code was discovered by the historian Vasily Tatischev in the text of one of the Novgorod chronicles and brought to the attention of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1738.

Sofia First Chronicle

Sofia ChronicleSofia chroniclesSofia First
The Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly already a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks.
The Sofia First Chronicle is a Russian chronicle associated with the St. Sophia Cathedral, Novgorod, Russia.

Alexander Nevsky

Saint Alexander NevskySt. Alexander NevskyAleksandr Nevsky
The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city regardless of what Novgorodians said.
In 1236, however, the Novgorodians summoned him to become knyaz (or prince) of Novgorod and, as their military leader, to defend their northwest lands from Swedish and German invaders.

Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod

No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod.
Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod was a church for Varangians which existed from the 11th century until the 14th century in the Russian city of Novgorod.

Vikings

VikingNorseDanes
Four Viking kings—Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, and Harald Hardrada—sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home.
Important trading ports during the period include Birka, Hedeby, Kaupang, Jorvik, Staraya Ladoga, Novgorod, and Kiev.

Posadnik

mayoress
When the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin, and Ostromir.
Most notably, the posadnik (equivalent to a stadtholder, burgomeister, or podestà in the medieval west) was the mayor of Novgorod and Pskov.

Hanseatic League

HanseaticHanseHansa
The Gotland town of Visby functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League.
Exploratory trading adventures, raids, and piracy had occurred early throughout the Baltic region; the sailors of Gotland sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod.