Velvet Revolution

fall of communism1989fall of the communist regimeGentle RevolutionCzechoslovakiaend of Communist rulefall1989 revolutioncollapse of the Communist regimefall of communism in Czechoslovakia
{{about|GodgobJdjdjdjd {{Distinguish|text=the Armenian Velvet Revolution}} {{Multiple issues| {{Original research|date=August 2013}} {{More citations needed|date=February 2008}} }}{{Infobox historical event ({{Age in months, weeks and days|month1=11|day1=17|year1=1989|month2=12|day2=29|year2=1989}}) }}{{History of Czechoslovakia}} {{Revolution sidebar}} * Event_Name = Velvet Revolution * partof= the Revolutions of 1989 * Image_Name = Praha 1989-11-25, Letná, dav (01).jpg * Image_Caption = Demonstration of 25 November 1989 in Prague.wikipedia
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Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechCzechoslovakian
The Velvet Revolution ({{lang-cs|sametová revoluce}}) or Gentle Revolution ({{lang-sk|nežná revolúcia}}) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and socialism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation.

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

CzechoslovakiaCommunist CzechoslovakiaČSSR
The result was the end of 41 years of one-party rule in Czechoslovakia, and the subsequent dismantling of the command economy and conversion to a parliamentary republic.
The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989.

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist PartyCzechoslovak Communist PartyCommunist
Popular demonstrations against the one-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia included students and older dissidents.
In 1989, the party leadership bowed to popular pressure during the Velvet Revolution and agreed to call the first contested election since 1946.

Václav Havel

Vaclav HavelHavelPresident Havel
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989.
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.

Miloš Jakeš

Milouš JakešJakeš
The entire top leadership of the Communist Party, including General Secretary Miloš Jakeš, resigned on 24 November.
He resigned from his position in late November 1989, amid the Velvet Revolution.

1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia

1960 Constitutiona new constitutionnew constitution
Two days later, the federal parliament formally deleted the sections of the Constitution giving the Communist Party a monopoly of power.
It was extensively revised after the Velvet Revolution to prune out its Communist character, with a view toward replacing it with a completely new constitution.

Prague

Prague, Czech RepublicPrague, CzechoslovakiaPraha
On 17 November 1989 (International Students' Day), riot police suppressed a student demonstration in Prague.
In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague, and the capital of Czechoslovakia benefited greatly from the new mood.

Federal Assembly (Czechoslovakia)

Federal AssemblyFederal Assembly of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak Federal Assembly
Two days later, the federal parliament formally deleted the sections of the Constitution giving the Communist Party a monopoly of power.
However, before the Velvet Revolution — and thus, in all but the last two assemblies — there was only one party to vote for, National Front, and it was impossible to give a preferential vote.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two countries—the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, which peacefully ended communist rule and reestablished democracy and a market economy.

Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Velvet Divorcedissolutiondissolved
On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two countries—the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
It is sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce, a reference to the bloodless Velvet Revolution of 1989 that led to the end of the rule of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the restoration of a capitalist state in the country.

Slovakia

SlovakSVKSlovak Republic
On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two countries—the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
In 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia peacefully.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
Czechoslovakia dissolved three years after the end of Communist rule, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992.

1990 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

1990elections1990 elections
In June 1990, Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946.
They were the first elections held in the country since the Velvet Revolution seven months earlier.

Alexander Dubček

Alexander DubcekDubčekDubcek
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989. This blacklisting included children of former entrepreneurs or non-Communist politicians, having family members living in the West, having supported Alexander Dubček during the Prague Spring, opposing Soviet military occupation, promoting religion, boycotting (rigged) parliamentary elections or signing Charter 77 or associating with those who did.
Later, after the overthrow of the communist regime in 1989, he was Chairman of the federal Czechoslovak parliament.

Civic Forum

OFCivic Forum (OF)
Dissidents (notably Charter 77 and Civic Forum) created Music Clubs (on a limited basis as only allowed NGOs) and published home-made periodicals (samizdat).
The Civic Forum (Czech: Občanské fórum, OF) was a political movement in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia, established during the Velvet Revolution in 1989.

Charter 77

Charta 77Stanislav MilotaVáclav Malý
Dissidents (notably Charter 77 and Civic Forum) created Music Clubs (on a limited basis as only allowed NGOs) and published home-made periodicals (samizdat).
After the 1989 Velvet Revolution, many of its members played important roles in Czech and Slovak politics.

Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
This blacklisting included children of former entrepreneurs or non-Communist politicians, having family members living in the West, having supported Alexander Dubček during the Prague Spring, opposing Soviet military occupation, promoting religion, boycotting (rigged) parliamentary elections or signing Charter 77 or associating with those who did.
Czechoslovakia remained controlled by the Soviet Union until 1989, when the Velvet Revolution peacefully ended the communist regime; the last Soviet troops left the country in 1991.

Anti-communism

anti-communistanticommunistanti-communists
(See Origin of International Students' Day for more information.) The 1989 event sparked a series of demonstrations from 17 November to late December and turned into an anti-communist demonstration.
The Velvet Revolution or Gentle Revolution was a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the Communist government.

Šimon Pánek

They walked (per the strategy of founders of Stuha movement, Jiří Dienstbier and Šimon Pánek) to Karel Hynek Mácha's grave at Vyšehrad Cemetery and — after the official end of the march — continued into the centre of Prague, carrying banners and chanting anti-Communist slogans.
Šimon Pánek (born 27 December 1967) is a former Czech student activist during the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and today the executive director of the humanitarian organization People in Need (Člověk v tísni), which he co-founded in 1992.

Gustáv Husák

Gustav HusakHusákGustav Husák
On 10 December, President Gustáv Husák appointed the first largely non-communist government in Czechoslovakia since 1948, and resigned.
On November 24, 1989, the entire Presidum of the Communist Party, including Husák, resigned in the wake of the Velvet Revolution.

Bratislava

PressburgPozsonyBratislava, Slovakia
On the eve of International Students Day (the 50th anniversary of Sonderaktion Prag, the 1939 storming of Prague universities by the Nazis), Slovak high school and university students organised a peaceful demonstration in the centre of Bratislava.
Bratislava's dissidents anticipated the fall of Communism with the Bratislava candle demonstration in 1988, and the city became one of the foremost centres of the anti-Communist Velvet Revolution in 1989.

Warsaw Pact

Soviet blocWarsaw TreatyEastern Bloc
In response to the collapse of other Warsaw Pact governments and the increasing street protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced on 28 November that it would relinquish power and end the one-party state.
From 1989 to 1991, Communist governments were overthrown in Albania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union.

Jiří Dienstbier Jr.

Jiří DienstbierDienstbierJiří Dienstbier Jr
They walked (per the strategy of founders of Stuha movement, Jiří Dienstbier and Šimon Pánek) to Karel Hynek Mácha's grave at Vyšehrad Cemetery and — after the official end of the march — continued into the centre of Prague, carrying banners and chanting anti-Communist slogans.
Jiří Dienstbier Jr. is the son of Jiří Dienstbier Sr., former journalist and civil rights activist who became the first Minister of Foreign Affairs in the newly democratic Czechoslovakia, and Zuzana Dienstbierová, née Wíšová, a psychologist.

Communist Party of Slovakia (1939)

Communist Party of SlovakiaCommunist PartyKSS
The Communist Party of Slovakia had expected trouble, and the mere fact that the demonstration was organised was viewed as a problem by the Party.
KSS ceased to exist in 1990 (following the Velvet Revolution), when it was transformed into the independent social-democratic party called the Party of Democratic Left (SDĽ).

Public Against Violence

VPNCivic Democratic UnionVerejnosť proti násiliu
They denounced the attack against the students in Prague on 17 November and formed Public Against Violence, which would become the leading force behind the opposition movement in Slovakia.
Public Against Violence (VPN) was founded during the Velvet Revolution, which overthrew the Communist Party rule in Czechoslovakia.