Velvet Revolution

fall of communismfall of the communist regime1989revolution1989 revolutioncollapse of communismcollapse of the Communist regimeCzechoslovakiaFallfall of Communism in 1989
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.wikipedia
846 Related Articles

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation.

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist PartyCommunistKSČ
Popular demonstrations against the one-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia combined students and older dissidents.
In 1989 the party leadership bowed to popular pressure during the Velvet revolution and agreed to call the first contested election since 1946.

Miloš Jakeš

Jakeš
The entire top leadership of the Communist Party, including General Secretary Miloš Jakeš, resigned on 24 November.
He resigned from his position in late November 1989, amid the Velvet Revolution.

Václav Havel

Vaclav HavelHavelPresident Havel
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989. Actors and members of the audience in a Prague theatre, together with Václav Havel and other prominent members of Charter 77 and other dissident organisations, established the Civic Forum (Občanské fórum — an equivalent of the Slovak Public Against Violence for the territory of the Czech Republic) as a mass popular movement for reforms, at 22:00.
Václav Havel (5 October 1936 – 18 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.

Czech Republic

🇨🇿CzechCZE
On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two countries—the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced.

Prague

PrahaPrague, Czech RepublicPrag
On 17 November 1989 (International Students' Day), riot police suppressed a student demonstration in Prague.
In 1989, after the riot police beat back a peaceful student demonstration, the Velvet Revolution crowded the streets of Prague, and the Czechoslovak capital benefited greatly from the new mood.

Slovakia

🇸🇰SlovakSVK
On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia split into two countries—the Czech Republic and Slovakia. After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, Slovakia used the term Gentle Revolution, the term that Slovaks used for the revolution from the beginning.
In 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia peacefully.

1990 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

elections19901990 elections
In June 1990, Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946.
They were the first elections held in the country since the end of Communist rule seven months earlier, and the first free elections since 1946.

Alexander Dubček

DubčekAlexander DubcekDubcek
Alexander Dubček was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989. This blacklisting included children of former entrepreneurs or non-Communist politicians, having family members living in the West, having supported Alexander Dubček during the Prague Spring, opposing Soviet military occupation, promoting religion, boycotting (rigged) parliamentary elections or signing Charter 77 or associating with those who did.
Later, after the overthrow of the communist regime in 1989, he was Chairman of the federal Czechoslovak parliament.

Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
This blacklisting included children of former entrepreneurs or non-Communist politicians, having family members living in the West, having supported Alexander Dubček during the Prague Spring, opposing Soviet military occupation, promoting religion, boycotting (rigged) parliamentary elections or signing Charter 77 or associating with those who did.
Czechoslovakia remained controlled by the Soviet Union until 1989, when the Velvet Revolution peacefully ended the communist regime; the last Soviet troops left the country in 1991.

Šimon Pánek

They walked (per the strategy of founders of Stuha movement, Jiří Dienstbier and Šimon Pánek) to Karel Hynek Mácha's grave at Vyšehrad Cemetery and — after the official end of the march — continued into the centre of Prague, carrying banners and chanting anti-Communist slogans.
Šimon Pánek (born 27 December 1967) is a former Czech student activist during the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and today the executive director of the humanitarian organization People in Need (Člověk v tísni), which he co-founded in 1992.

Bratislava

PressburgPozsonyPreßburg
On the eve of International Students Day (the 50th anniversary of Sonderaktion Prag, the 1939 storming of Prague universities by the Nazis), Slovak high school and university students organised a peaceful demonstration in the centre of Bratislava. Theatres Bratislava, Brno, Ostrava and other towns went on strike.
Bratislava's dissidents anticipated the fall of Communism with the Bratislava candle demonstration in 1988, and the city became one of the foremost centres of the anti-Communist Velvet Revolution in 1989.

Jiří Dienstbier Jr.

Jiří DienstbierDienstbierJiří Dienstbier Jr
They walked (per the strategy of founders of Stuha movement, Jiří Dienstbier and Šimon Pánek) to Karel Hynek Mácha's grave at Vyšehrad Cemetery and — after the official end of the march — continued into the centre of Prague, carrying banners and chanting anti-Communist slogans.
Jiří Dienstbier Jr. is the son of Jiří Dienstbier Sr., former journalist and civil rights activist who became the first Minister of Foreign Affairs in the newly democratic Czechoslovakia, and Zuzana Dienstbierová, née Wíšová, a psychologist.

Communist Party of Slovakia (1939)

Communist Party of SlovakiaCommunist PartyKSS
The Communist Party of Slovakia had expected trouble, and the mere fact that the demonstration was organised was viewed as a problem by the Party.
KSS ceased to exist in 1990 (following the Velvet Revolution), when it was transformed into the independent social-democratic party called the Party of Democratic Left (SDĽ).

Public Against Violence

VPNCivic Democratic UnionVerejnosť proti násiliu
They denounced the attack against the students in Prague on 17 November and formed Public Against Violence, which would become the leading force behind the opposition movement in Slovakia.
Public Against Violence (VPN) was founded during the Velvet Revolution, which overthrew the Communist Party rule in Czechoslovakia.

Milan Kňažko

Milan Kňažko
Its founding members included Milan Kňažko, and others.
He was one of the leading personalities of the movement Public against Violence in November 1989 and one of the most popular faces of the Velvet Revolution in Slovakia.

Ostrava

Moravská OstravaOstrauMährisch-Ostrau
Theatres Bratislava, Brno, Ostrava and other towns went on strike.
It was previously known as the country's "steel heart" thanks to its status as a coal-mining and metallurgical centre, but since the Velvet Revolution (the fall of communism in 1989) it has undergone radical and far-reaching changes to its economic base.

Martin Šmíd

In the evening, Radio Free Europe reported that a student (named as Martin Šmíd) was killed by the police during the previous day's demonstration.
Martin Šmíd was a fictitious Czechoslovak university student, who was supposedly killed in the police attack on the November 17, 1989 student demonstration in Prague that launched Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution.

Civic Forum

OFCivic Forum (OF)
Actors and members of the audience in a Prague theatre, together with Václav Havel and other prominent members of Charter 77 and other dissident organisations, established the Civic Forum (Občanské fórum — an equivalent of the Slovak Public Against Violence for the territory of the Czech Republic) as a mass popular movement for reforms, at 22:00.
The Civic Forum (Czech: Občanské fórum, OF) was a political movement in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia, established during the Velvet Revolution in 1989.

Charter 77

Charter 77 FoundationJiří Němecanti-communist dissident
Actors and members of the audience in a Prague theatre, together with Václav Havel and other prominent members of Charter 77 and other dissident organisations, established the Civic Forum (Občanské fórum — an equivalent of the Slovak Public Against Violence for the territory of the Czech Republic) as a mass popular movement for reforms, at 22:00.
After the 1989 Velvet Revolution, many of its members played important roles in Czech and Slovak politics.

Gustáv Husák

HusákGustav HusákHusakian
On 10 December, President Gustáv Husák appointed the first largely non-communist government in Czechoslovakia since 1948, and resigned.
1989 (10 December): resigned as the President of Czechoslovakia within the Velvet Revolution

Ján Čarnogurský

A separate demonstration demanded the release of the political prisoner Ján Čarnogurský (later Prime Minister of Slovakia) in front of the Palace of Justice.
Shortly before the Velvet Revolution, on August 14, 1989, he was imprisoned and released only after the collapse of the Communist regime through a presidential amnesty on November 25, 1989.

Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

dissolutionVelvet Divorcebreakup
After the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, Slovakia used the term Gentle Revolution, the term that Slovaks used for the revolution from the beginning.
It is sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce, a reference to the bloodless Velvet Revolution of 1989 that led to the end of the rule of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the restoration of a capitalist state in the country.

František Tomášek

František Cardinal Tomášek
Cardinal František Tomášek, the Roman Catholic primate of the Bohemian lands, declared his support for the students and issued a declaration criticising the current government's policies.
His "cautious but resolute opposition to the Czechoslovak communist regime helped to bring about its peaceful demise in the 1989 Velvet Revolution".

People's Militias (Czechoslovakia)

People's MilitiasLidové miliceLM
During the night, they had summoned 4,000 members of the "People's Militias" (Lidové milice, a paramilitary organisation subordinated directly to the Communist Party) to Prague to crush the protests, but called them off.
After the communist party's fall from power at the end of 1989, the militias were dissolved on December 21, 1989.