Venezuela

The German Welser Armada exploring Venezuela.
El Libertador, Simón Bolívar.
Revolution of 19 April 1810, the beginning of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar
The signing of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar.
Flag of Venezuela between 1954 and 2006.
Rómulo Betancourt (president 1945–1948 / 1959–1964), one of the major democracy leaders of Venezuela.
Table where the Puntofijo Pact was signed on 31 October 1958
Sabana Grande district, Caracas (1973)
President Carlos Andrés Pérez was impeached on corruption charges in 1993.
Chávez with fellow South American presidents Néstor Kirchner of Argentina and Lula da Silva of Brazil
Nicolás Maduro with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff at the 48th Mercosur Summit in Brazil in 2015.
Maduro was inaugurated for a contested and controversial second term on 10 January 2019.
Topographic map of Venezuela
Venezuela map of Köppen climate classification
The national animal of Venezuela is the troupial (Icterus icterus),
Valencia Lake, formerly praised by Alexander von Humboldt for its beauty, is massively polluted due to the countless sewage systems pouring residuals.
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Bolívar Peak, the highest mountain in Venezuela
Los Llanos, Apure state
Valle de Mifafí, Mérida State
Médanos de Coro National Park, Falcón State
National Assembly of Venezuela building
Protests in Altamira, Caracas (2014)
The Guayana Esequiba claim area is a territory administered by Guyana and historically claimed by Venezuela.
President Maduro among other Latin American leaders participating in a 2017 ALBA gathering
A Sukhoi Su-30MKV of the Venezuelan Air Force
Map of the Venezuelan federation
A proportional representation of Venezuela exports, 2019
Líder Mall, one of the main shopping centers in Caracas
Ángel falls one of Venezuela's top tourist attractions, the world highest waterfall
Empty shelves in a store in Venezuela due to shortages in 2014
Venezuela's exports of crude oil from January 2018 to December 2019
A map of world oil reserves according to OPEC, 2013. Venezuela has the world's largest oil reserves.
Caracas Metro in Los Jardines Station
The Venezuelan Academy of Language studies the development of the Spanish in the country.
University Hospital, Central University of Venezuela
Illiteracy rate in Venezuela based on data from UNESCO and the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) of Venezuela
The joropo, as depicted in a 1912 drawing by Eloy Palacios
Antonio Herrera Toro, self portrait 1880
The Guanaguanare dance, a popular dance in Portuguesa State
Venezuela national baseball team in 2015
Venezuela national football team, popularly known as the "Vinotinto"

Country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea.

- Venezuela

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Gran Colombia

State that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

State that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

Gran Colombia; Claimed Land is shown in Light Green
A mural by Santiago Martinez Delgado at the Colombian Congress representing the Congress of Cúcuta
Gran Colombia; Claimed Land is shown in Light Green
The departments of Gran Colombia in 1820
A map of Gran Colombia showing the 12 departments created in 1824 and territories disputed with neighboring countries
Colombia
Ecuador
Venezuela

It included present-day Colombia, mainland Ecuador (i.e. excluding the Galapagos Islands), Panama, and Venezuela, along with parts of northern Peru and northwestern Brazil.

Capital District (Venezuela)

The Capital District (Distrito Capital) is a federal district of Venezuela.

Soldiers carrying flags featuring Chávez eyes.

Bolivarian Revolution

Soldiers carrying flags featuring Chávez eyes.
Shoppers waiting in line at a Mercal store in 2014
Mission Robinson of the Hugo Chávez government in Venezuela promoting the education of the Wayuu

The Bolivarian Revolution is a political process in Venezuela that was led by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, the founder of the Fifth Republic Movement and later the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV).

Diosdado Cabello beside Nicolás Maduro and his wife, Cilia Flores

Crisis in Venezuela

Diosdado Cabello beside Nicolás Maduro and his wife, Cilia Flores
Venezuelans demonstrating during the 2016 Venezuelan protests
Number of protests in Venezuela per year
A group of Venezuelans searching through garbage on the streets of Caracas in May 2018
Healthcare spending by percentage of Venezuela's GDP
Venezuelans protesting in 2017 for medicine due to the shortages in Venezuela
From less than 36,000 cases in 2009, to 414,000 cases of malaria in Venezuela in 2017
Slums in Caracas seen above El Paraíso tunnel
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Source: CICPC 
Note: Express kidnappings may not be included in data.
Arbitrary detentions in Venezuela between 2014 and 2019 according to Foro Penal. Arrests by year in blue and total arrests in red.
Ratings for Venezuela from 1998 to 2017 by the U.S. Government-funded NGO Freedom House (1 = free, 7 = not free)
On 18 February, President Trump urged Venezuela's military to abandon Nicolás Maduro or 'lose everything'.
Aid for Venezuela sent by the United States to Colombia
Location of the humanitarian aid points outside of Venezuela

The crisis in Venezuela is an ongoing socioeconomic and political crisis that began in Venezuela during the presidency of Hugo Chávez and has worsened in Nicolás Maduro's presidency.

Striped, the area claimed by Venezuela.

Guayana Esequiba

Striped, the area claimed by Venezuela.
Guayana Esequiba in light green with the rest of Guyana in dark green; Venezuela shown in orange
A 1625 map by Hessel Gerritsz, showing Dutch territory (in yellow) ranging from the Orinoco River to the Amazon River
Ruins of Fort Kyk-Over-Al, constructed by the Dutch in 1616
A 1775 map of the Americas by Rigobert Bonne.
The map of Dutch colonies of Essequibo and Demerara in 1798.
An 1840 map of Gran Colombia including the Esequibo region.
1896 map detailing British Guiana and the disputes surrounding the Schomburgk Line
Official Map of the United States of Venezuela by L. Robelin 1890, which shows the Venezuelan historical claim to the region.
Punch cartoon after the conclusion of the Tribunal of Arbitration. PEACE AND PLENTY. Lord Salisbury (chuckling). "I like arbitration — In the PROPER PLACE!"
Map of Guyana, showing the Essequibo River and (shaded dark) the river's drainage basin. Venezuela claims territory up to the western bank of the river. The historical claim by the UK included the river basin well into current-day Venezuela.
Map of Venezuela, showing the maritime areas in blue and Guayana Esequiba in gray.

Guayana Esequiba, sometimes also called Esequibo or Essequibo, is a disputed territory of 159500 km2 west of the Essequibo River that is administered and controlled by Guyana but claimed by Venezuela.

Caracas

Diego de Losada by Antonio Herrera Toro
Caracas in 1839
Caracas in 1950.
Macarao National Park
View of Ávila from Parque del Este
The typical climate of Caracas is the tropical savanna
View of Caracas from the Avila National Park
View of the Libertador Avenue
Caracas East
Bolivar Avenue
Libertador Avenue
Caracas West from the Ávila
Plaza Francia, Caracas
Buildings in the Central Park, Caracas
Historic center of Caracas
Humbolt Hotel, Caracas
Federal Legislative Palace, Seat of the National Parliament
Cloud Shepherd, by Hans Arp, UCV
Municipal Theatre of Caracas
Simón Bolívar University, Caracas
Olympic Stadium of the Central University of Venezuela, World Heritage Site
Railway Caracas – Cúa
Coche Station, Caracas Metro
Caracas Metrocable

Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, abbreviated as CCS, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, and the center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas (or Greater Caracas).

Constitution of Venezuela

The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela (CRBV)) is the current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela.

First Republic of Venezuela

The First Republic of Venezuela
19 de Abril. Juan Lovera (1835). Lovera painted this scene from memory. Emparán (black uniform with red lapels) on the steps of the Cathedral surrounded by prominent members of the crowd which led him to the Cabildo. (Palacio Federal Legislativo, Caracas).
The First Republic of Venezuela

The First Republic of Venezuela (Primera República de Venezuela) was the first independent government of Venezuela, lasting from 5 July 1811, to 25 July 1812.

The pathway of regional integration or separation

Federation

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

The pathway of regional integration or separation
A map of the Russian Federation, showing its eighty-three federal subjects before the annexation of Crimea in 2014.
A map of Brazil, showing its twenty-six constituent states and the Federal District.
A map of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, showing its 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory.
A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico), showing its thirty-one constituent states and the Mexico City.
A map of the United States of America showing its fifty constituent states and the District of Columbia.
A map of Canada showing its ten provinces and three territories.
A map of Australia showing its six states and ten territories.
A political map of India showing 28 states and 8 union territories including the National Capital Territory.
A map of the Federal Republic of Germany showing its sixteen constituent states (Länder) including three city-states.
The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons.
The Autonomous communities of Spain.
Provinces of South Africa.
The United Provinces of Central America was a short-lived federal republic

Brazil became a federation only after the fall of the monarchy, and Venezuela became a federation after the Federal War.

Lake Maracaibo from space (STS-51-F) in August 1985. North is at the bottom left of the image.

Lake Maracaibo

Lake Maracaibo from space (STS-51-F) in August 1985. North is at the bottom left of the image.
Battle of Lake Maracaibo in 1823
View of General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge
Fisherman taking a bath in the Maracaibo lake
Green swirls on the lake are duckweed.
Solid waste in the lake's coast

Lake Maracaibo (Lago de Maracaibo, ) is a large brackish tidal bay (or tidal estuary) in Zulia, Venezuela and an "inlet of the Caribbean Sea".