A report on Venezuela

The German Welser Armada exploring Venezuela.
El Libertador, Simón Bolívar.
Revolution of 19 April 1810, the beginning of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar
The signing of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar.
Flag of Venezuela between 1954 and 2006.
Rómulo Betancourt (president 1945–1948 / 1959–1964), one of the major democracy leaders of Venezuela.
Table where the Puntofijo Pact was signed on 31 October 1958
Sabana Grande district, Caracas (1973)
President Carlos Andrés Pérez was impeached on corruption charges in 1993.
Chávez with fellow South American presidents Néstor Kirchner of Argentina and Lula da Silva of Brazil
Nicolás Maduro with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff at the 48th Mercosur Summit in Brazil in 2015.
Maduro was inaugurated for a contested and controversial second term on 10 January 2019.
Topographic map of Venezuela
Venezuela map of Köppen climate classification
The national animal of Venezuela is the troupial (Icterus icterus),
Valencia Lake, formerly praised by Alexander von Humboldt for its beauty, is massively polluted due to the countless sewage systems pouring residuals.
Bolívar Peak, the highest mountain in Venezuela
Los Llanos, Apure state
Valle de Mifafí, Mérida State
Médanos de Coro National Park, Falcón State
National Assembly of Venezuela building
Protests in Altamira, Caracas (2014)
The Guayana Esequiba claim area is a territory administered by Guyana and historically claimed by Venezuela.
President Maduro among other Latin American leaders participating in a 2017 ALBA gathering
A Sukhoi Su-30MKV of the Venezuelan Air Force
Map of the Venezuelan federation
A proportional representation of Venezuela exports, 2019
Líder Mall, one of the main shopping centers in Caracas
Ángel falls one of Venezuela's top tourist attractions, the world highest waterfall
Empty shelves in a store in Venezuela due to shortages in 2014
Venezuela's exports of crude oil from January 2018 to December 2019
A map of world oil reserves according to OPEC, 2013. Venezuela has the world's largest oil reserves.
Caracas Metro in Los Jardines Station
The Venezuelan Academy of Language studies the development of the Spanish in the country.
University Hospital, Central University of Venezuela
Illiteracy rate in Venezuela based on data from UNESCO and the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) of Venezuela
The joropo, as depicted in a 1912 drawing by Eloy Palacios
Antonio Herrera Toro, self portrait 1880
The Guanaguanare dance, a popular dance in Portuguesa State
Venezuela national baseball team in 2015
Venezuela national football team, popularly known as the "Vinotinto"
Venezuelan diaspora in the world
+ 1,000,000
+ 100,000
+ 10,000
+ 1,000

Country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea.

- Venezuela

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Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Bogotazo in 1948
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
Relief map
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
Port of Cartagena.
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Colombian tiple
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes

It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest.

Portrait by José Toro Moreno, 1922

Simón Bolívar

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Portrait by José Toro Moreno, 1922
Miniature portrait of Bolívar in 1800
Francisco de Miranda, portrait by Martín Tovar y Tovar
1917 engraving of Bolívar
1895 portrait of Bolívar by Arturo Michelena
Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander during the Congress of Cúcuta, October 1821
Portrait by Francis Martin Drexel, 1827
El Libertador (Bolívar diplomático), 1860
Bolívar's death, by Venezuelan painter Antonio Herrera Toro
Simón Bolívar Memorial Monument, standing in Santa Marta, Colombia, at the Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino
Statue of Bolívar in Plaza Bolívar in Caracas, Venezuela, by Adamo Tadolini
Simón Bolívar's statue in Paris, France
A monument in honor of Simón Bolívar in Sofia, Bulgaria
Statue of Simón Bolívar in Lisbon, Portugal
Statue of Simón Bolívar in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Statue of Simón Bolívar in Bucharest, Romania
Statue of Simón Bolívar in Trinity Bellwoods Park, Toronto, Canada
Statue of Simon Bolivar in Tehran, Iran
c. 1826 equestrian portrait of Bolívar by José Hilarión Ibarra

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (, also , ; 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led what are currently the countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia to independence from the Spanish Empire.


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Diego de Losada by Antonio Herrera Toro
Caracas in 1839
Caracas in 1950.
Macarao National Park
View of Ávila from Parque del Este
The typical climate of Caracas is the tropical savanna
View of Caracas from the Avila National Park
View of the Libertador Avenue
Caracas East
Bolivar Avenue
Libertador Avenue
Caracas West from the Ávila
Plaza Francia, Caracas
Buildings in the Central Park, Caracas
Historic center of Caracas
Humbolt Hotel, Caracas
Federal Legislative Palace, Seat of the National Parliament
Cloud Shepherd, by Hans Arp, UCV
Municipal Theatre of Caracas
Simón Bolívar University, Caracas
Olympic Stadium of the Central University of Venezuela, World Heritage Site
Railway Caracas – Cúa
Coche Station, Caracas Metro
Caracas Metrocable

Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, abbreviated as CCS, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, and the center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas (or Greater Caracas).

Democratic Action (Venezuela)

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AD posters during a rally in support of RCTV in 2007

Democratic Action (Acción Democrática, AD) is a Venezuelan social democratic and center-left political party established in 1941.

Maduro in 2019

Nicolás Maduro

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Venezuelan politician and president of Venezuela since 2013, with his presidency under dispute since 2019.

Venezuelan politician and president of Venezuela since 2013, with his presidency under dispute since 2019.

Maduro in 2019
Maduro in 2022
Diosdado Cabello beside Maduro and his wife, Cilia Flores
MBR-200 members meeting in 1997 (Maduro is on the far left and Chávez is in the center)
Maduro in 1999 as a Member of the National Constituent Assembly
Foreign Minister Maduro, beside Tareck El Aissami, present Vladimir Putin the Key to the City of Caracas in April 2010
Maduro taking the oath of office as president of Venezuela on 19 April 2013
President Maduro among other Latin American leaders participating in a 2013 UNASUR summit
President Maduro speaking at a Venezuelan Constituent Assembly session on 10 August 2017
Maduro in January 2019 at the Supreme Tribunal of Justice building
Maduro speaking at Supreme Tribunal of Justice in February 2017
Maduro meeting with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry on 26 September 2016
Foreign leaders greet Maduro at Maduro's second inauguration on 10 January 2019
Sentence of the Supreme Tribunal in exile that annuls the 2013 presidential elections and requests the presidency and the CNE to send a certified copy of the president's birth certificate, as well as the resignation from his Colombian nationality
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo discussed Venezuela with Brazil's new president Jair Bolsonaro in January 2019
President Donald Trump warned Venezuelan soldiers to renounce loyalty to Nicolás Maduro.
A food box provided by CLAP, with the supplier (Grand Group Limited, owned by Maduro) receiving government funds
Source: Datanálisis through July 2017; March 2019 is 14%
Nicolás Maduro's 2018 presidential campaign logo.

In September 2006, while attempting to travel back to Venezuela via Miami, Florida, Maduro was briefly detained by Homeland Security officers at the John F. Kennedy International Airport for around 90 minutes, after paying for three airplane tickets in cash.


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Country on the northern mainland of South America.

Country on the northern mainland of South America.

Kaieteur Falls is the world's largest single-drop waterfall by volume.
Rupununi Savannah
Satellite image of Guyana from 2004
Anomaloglossus beebei (Kaieteur), specific to the Guianas
The hoatzin is the national bird of Guyana.
A tractor in a rice field on Guyana's coastal plain
A proportional representation of Guyana exports, 2019
Thatched roof houses in Guyana
Guyana's population density in 2005 (people per km2)
A graph showing the population of Guyana from 1961 to 2003. The population decline in the 1980s can be clearly seen.
The State House, Guyana's presidential residence
The Supreme Court of Guyana
Guyana's parliament building since 1834
Map of Guyana, showing the Essequibo River and (shaded dark) the river's drainage basin. Venezuela claims territory up to the western bank of the river. The historical claim by the UK included the river basin well into current-day Venezuela.
Cross-border bridge from Guyana to Brazil near Lethem
St George's Cathedral, Georgetown
Providence Stadium as seen from the East Bank Highway

Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, and Suriname to the east.

Diosdado Cabello beside Nicolás Maduro and his wife, Cilia Flores

Crisis in Venezuela

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Diosdado Cabello beside Nicolás Maduro and his wife, Cilia Flores
Venezuelans demonstrating during the 2016 Venezuelan protests
Number of protests in Venezuela per year
A group of Venezuelans searching through garbage on the streets of Caracas in May 2018
Healthcare spending by percentage of Venezuela's GDP
Venezuelans protesting in 2017 for medicine due to the shortages in Venezuela
From less than 36,000 cases in 2009, to 414,000 cases of malaria in Venezuela in 2017
Slums in Caracas seen above El Paraíso tunnel
Source: CICPC 
Note: Express kidnappings may not be included in data.
Arbitrary detentions in Venezuela between 2014 and 2019 according to Foro Penal. Arrests by year in blue and total arrests in red.
Ratings for Venezuela from 1998 to 2017 by the U.S. Government-funded NGO Freedom House (1 = free, 7 = not free)
On 18 February, President Trump urged Venezuela's military to abandon Nicolás Maduro or 'lose everything'.
Aid for Venezuela sent by the United States to Colombia
Location of the humanitarian aid points outside of Venezuela

The crisis in Venezuela is an ongoing socioeconomic and political crisis that began in Venezuela during the presidency of Hugo Chávez and has worsened in Nicolás Maduro's presidency.


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Country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Tumaco-La Tolita mythological figure in feathered costume. Between 100 BC and 100 AD. Found in Esmeraldas
Ruins of Ingapirca, this site served as an outpost and provisioning of the Incan troops, but mainly it was a place of worship and veneration to the sun, the supreme Inca God, thus constituting a Coricancha, dedicated to the Inca ritual.
Pre-Columbian shrunken head of the Shuars (Jivaroan peoples).
Major square of Quito. Painting of 18th century. Quito Painting Colonial School.
Venezuelan independence leader Antonio José de Sucre
The "Guayaquil Conference" was the meeting between the two main Spanish South American independence leaders. In it the form of government of the nascent countries was discussed, San Martín opted for a unified South America in the form of a monarchy, while Bolívar opted for the same but into a republic. 1843 painting.
Antique dug out canoes in the courtyard of the Old Military Hospital in the Historic Center of Quito
Map of the former Gran Colombia in 1824 (named in its time as Colombia), the Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
Ecuador in 1832
South America (1879): All land claims by Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia in 1879
Map of Ecuadorian land claims after 1916
Ecuadorian troops during the Cenepa War
The Mirage F.1JA (FAE-806) was one aircraft involved in the claimed shooting down of two Peruvian Sukhoi Su-22 on 10 February 1995.
President Lenín Moreno, first lady Rocío González Navas and his predecessor Rafael Correa, 3 April 2017
Palacio de Carondelet, the executive branch of the Ecuadorian Government
Adult Galápagos sea lion resting on a park bench in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.
Ecuadorian President Lenín Moreno with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, 20 July 2019
Map of Ecuador
Ecuadorian Air Force (FAE)
Ecuadorian topography
A view of the Cotopaxi volcano, in Cotopaxi Province
Birds in the Yasuni National Park
Baños de Agua Santa is an important tourist site
Ecuador is one of the most megadiverse countries in the world, it also has the most biodiversity per square kilometer of any nation, and is one of the highest endemism worldwide. In the image, the spectacled bear of the Andes.
Amazon rainforest in Ecuador
A proportional representation of Ecuador exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Ecuador
The United States dollar is the common currency circulation in Ecuador
World Trade Center headquarters in Guayaquil
EXA's first satellite, NEE-01 Pegasus
The historic center of Quito has one of the largest and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. The city also houses a large number of museums.
The Trolebús bus rapid transit system that runs through Quito. It is the principal BRT in Ecuador.
Railways in Ecuador (interactive map)
Population pyramid in 2020
IESS Hospital in Latacunga
The oldest observatory in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory, founded in 1873 and located in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
Cañari children with the typical Andean indigenous clothes
Huaorani man with the typical Amazonian indigenous clothes
Juan Montalvo

Following the battle, Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar's Republic of Gran Colombia, also including modern-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.

Gran Colombia

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State that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

State that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

Gran Colombia; Claimed Land is shown in Light Green
A mural by Santiago Martinez Delgado at the Colombian Congress representing the Congress of Cúcuta
Gran Colombia; Claimed Land is shown in Light Green
The departments of Gran Colombia in 1820
A map of Gran Colombia showing the 12 departments created in 1824 and territories disputed with neighboring countries

It included present-day Colombia, mainland Ecuador (i.e. excluding the Galapagos Islands), Panama, and Venezuela, along with parts of northern Peru and northwestern Brazil.

Rómulo Betancourt

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Rómulo Betancourt during his childhood
Betancourt in 1936
Members of the Revolutionary Government Junta, from left to right: Mario Ricardo Vargas, Raúl Leoni, Valmore Rodríguez, Rómulo Betancourt, Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, Edmundo Fernández and Gonzalo Barrios. Miraflores Palace, 1945
Rómulo Betancourt voting at the 1946 Venezuelan Constituent Assembly election
Rómulo Betancourt during his exile in Havana, Cuba, 1949
U.S. President John F. Kennedy in December 1961 promoting the Alliance for Progress with Venezuelan President Rómulo Betancourt, who had invited Kennedy to this land redistribution ceremony in a Venezuelan village. Kennedy's wife, Jacqueline, addressed the audience in Spanish. Video of this ceremony [[:File:Kennedy in Latin America 1961 USIS.ogv|can be seen here]].
Betancourt's inaugural address in 1959
Explosion in Paseo Los Próceres during Betancourt's assassination attempt, 24 June 1960
Rómulo Betancourt during a speech to a group of officers
Betancourt playing soccer, c. 1960s
Rómulo... "great spirits do not die". Advertising published after the death of Betancourt in 1981
Betancourt's Personal Library - Rómulo Betancourt Foundation, Caracas
Carmen Valverde

Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello (22 February 1908 – 28 September 1981; ), known as "The Father of Venezuelan Democracy", was the president of Venezuela, serving from 1945 to 1948 and again from 1959 to 1964, as well as leader of Acción Democrática, Venezuela's dominant political party in the 20th century.