Venice

Grand Canal from Rialto to Ca'Foscari
Venice in autumn, with the Rialto Bridge in the background
Venice view from the Bridge Priuli a Santa Sofia, to the Bridge de le Vele
Gondola Punta and Basilica Salute
St Mark's Basilica houses the relics of St Mark the Evangelist
The Doge's Palace, the former residence of the Doge of Venice
The Republic of Venice and its colonial empire Stato da Màr.
Piazza San Marco in Venice, with St. Mark's Campanile.
View of San Giorgio Maggiore Island from St. Mark's Campanile.
Monument to Bartolomeo Colleoni (1400-1475), captain-general of the Republic of Venice from 1455 to 1475.
The Fra Mauro Map of the world. The map was made around 1450 and depicts Asia, Africa and Europe.
View of San Marco basin in 1697.
Venice viewed from the International Space Station
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from Terra. The picture is oriented with North at the top.
Piazza San Marco under water in 2007
Acqua alta ("high water") in Venice, 2008
Like Murano, Burano is also a tourist destination, usually reached via vaporetto
The beach of Lido di Venezia
Bridge of Sighs, one of the most visited sites in the city
Venetian Arsenal houses the Naval Historical Museum
Piazzetta San Marco with Doge's Palace on the left and the columns of the Lion of Venice and St. Theodore in the center.
Gondolas share the waterway with other types of craft (including the vaporetti)
Cleaning of canals in the late 1990s.
Gondoliers on the Grand Canal
Venice Guggenheim Museum.
Cruise ships access the port of Venice through the Giudecca Canal.
Cruise ship and gondolas in the Bacino San Marco
Aerial view of Venice including the Ponte della Libertà bridge to the mainland.
Giudecca Canal. View from St Mark's Campanile.
Sandolo in a picture of Paolo Monti of 1965. Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC.
P & O steamer, circa 1870.
Rialto Bridge
Vaporetti on the Grand Canal
The Venice Santa Lucia station
Cruise ships at the passenger terminal in the Port of Venice (Venezia Terminal Passeggeri)
Marco Polo International Airport (Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo)
Ca' Foscari University of Venice
The Travels of Marco Polo.
The Santa Maria della Salute
An 18th-century view of Venice by Venetian artist Canaletto.
The Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti is an example of Venetian Gothic architecture alongside the Grand Canal.
The Ca' d'Oro.
Palazzo Dandolo.
The Baroque Ca' Rezzonico.
Murano glass chandelier Ca' Rezzonico
A Venetian glass goblet
La Fenice operahouse in the city.
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the most prestigious and publicized.
Francesco Guardi's Regatta in Venice, Guardi was a member of the Venetian School.
The Morning Chocolate, by Pietro Longhi. Hot chocolate was a fashionable drink in Venice during the 1770s and 1780s.
Luxury shops and boutiques along the Rialto Bridge.
The Doge Andrea Gritti, reigned 1523–1538, portrait by Titian.
Carlo Goldoni, the most notable name in Italian theatre.
The explorer Sebastian Cabot.
thumb|The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola, Canaletto, circa 1738, J. Paul Getty Museum.
thumb|Francesco Guardi, The Grand Canal, circa 1760 (Art Institute of Chicago)
thumb|Morning Impression along a Canal in Venice, Veneto, Italy by Rafail Levitsky (1896)
thumb|View from the Bridge of Sighs (2017)
The whole comune (red) in the Metropolitan City of Venice
Ca' Loredan is Venice's City Hall
Palazzo Corner is the seat of the Metropolitan City of Venice
Palazzo Ferro Fini is the seat of the Regional Council of Veneto
People Mover in Venice
A map of the waterbus routes in Venezia
Bus in Mestre
Tram in Venice leaving Piazzale Roma

City in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

- Venice

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Flag of the Italian Navy, displaying the coat of arms of the best known maritime republics (clockwise from the upper left): Venice, Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi

Maritime republics

The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics (repubbliche mercantili), of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states in Italy during the Middle Ages.

The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics (repubbliche mercantili), of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states in Italy during the Middle Ages.

Flag of the Italian Navy, displaying the coat of arms of the best known maritime republics (clockwise from the upper left): Venice, Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi
Map and coats of arms of the maritime republics
Map of Constantinople (1422) by Florentine cartographer Cristoforo Buondelmonti, showing (a greatly enlarged) Pera trading quarter at the north of the Golden Horn, with the peninsula of Constantinople to the south.
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Battle of Giglio (1241)
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The triumph of Genoese admiral Lamba Doria in the Battle of Curzola
The Genoese fortress in Sudak, Crimea
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Venetian Arsenal
Sack of Constantinople 1204
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Cathedral of Ancona
Port of Ancona (XVI century).
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Republic of Ragusa before 1808
Painting of Ragusa from 1667
The Rector's Palace and, behind it, the Sponza Palace
Dagobert sailing in a ship flying St George's cross
Aerial view of Saint Sabas monastery, Palestine
Part of the Venetian fortress on Tenedos, an island now Turkish
The Battle of Lepanto in a painting from the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London
Watchtower in Marciana Marina, Elba, built by the Republic of Pisa as a defence against Saracene pirates
Lithograph of the Battle of Meloria by Armanino
Expansion and influence of Amalfi
Expansion and influence of Pisa
Expansion and influence of Genoa
Expansion and influence of Venice
Trade routes of Ancona
Trade routes of Ragusa
Genoese Holdings in the 12th–13th century
Venetian Holdings in the 15th–16th century
Pisan Holdings in the 12th century

The Republic of Venice, also known as La Serenissima (The Most Serene), came into being in 727 AD as a result of the development of trade relations with the Byzantine Empire, of which it was once formally a part, albeit with a substantial degree of independence.

Humid subtropical climate in Li River, China.

Humid subtropical climate

[[File:Koppen World Map Cwa Cfa.png|thumb|right|upright=1.8|Warm temperate with hot summer climate zones of the world according to a modified Köppen climate classification that uses a threshold of 0 °C for the coldest month.

[[File:Koppen World Map Cwa Cfa.png|thumb|right|upright=1.8|Warm temperate with hot summer climate zones of the world according to a modified Köppen climate classification that uses a threshold of 0 °C for the coldest month.

Humid subtropical climate in Li River, China.

The cities include Trieste, Venice, and Rimini in Italy, Rijeka and Split in Croatia, Koper in Slovenia and Kotor in Montenegro.

A commedia dell'arte street play during the Carnival of Venice

Commedia dell'arte

Early form of professional theatre, originating in Italy, that was popular throughout Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries.

Early form of professional theatre, originating in Italy, that was popular throughout Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries.

A commedia dell'arte street play during the Carnival of Venice
Commedia dell'arte Troupe on a Wagon in a Town Square by Jan Miel (1640)
Claude Gillot (1673–1722), Four Commedia dell'arte Figures: Three Gentlemen and Pierrot, c. 1715
Pulcinella, drawn by Maurice Sand
Harlequin in a 19th-century Italian print
Commedia dell'arte troupe I Gelosi in a late 16th-century Flemish painting
Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684–1721), Commedia dell'arte player of Pierrot, ca. 1718–19, identified as "Gilles". Louvre, Paris.
Harlequin and Pantalone in a 2011 play in Tallinn, Estonia.
Eduardo De Filippo as Pulcinella
Harlequin and Colombina. Paint by Giovanni Domenico Ferretti.
Jean-Antoine Watteau, Italian Comedians, 1720
Johann Joachim Kändler's commedia dell'arte figures in Meissen porcelain, c. 1735–44
Peeter van Bredael, Commedia dell'arte Scene in an Italian Landscape
Pierrot as "Pjerrot" in Denmark

The genesis of commedia may be related to carnival in Venice, where the author and actor Andrea Calmo had created the character Il Magnifico, the precursor to the vecchio (old man) Pantalone, by 1570.

Brescia

City and comune in the region of Lombardy, Northern Italy.

City and comune in the region of Lombardy, Northern Italy.

Winged Victory of Brescia (1st century).
The Capitolium in the Roman forum
The castle of Brescia.
The Pallata Tower.
Map of Brescia in the early 18th century.
The dome of the New Cathedral.
Piazza della Vittoria, example of Italian rationalism, built between 1927 and 1932 by the architect Marcello Piacentini.
Palazzo della Loggia, Brescia City Hall.
Palazzo Broletto, seat of the Province and of the Prefecture of Brescia.
The interior of the church of Santa Maria in Solario with the Cross of Desiderius.
Domus dell'Ortaglia, remains of a group of ancient Roman domus.
The two cathedrals of Brescia: the Old (at right) and the New (at left).
The church of San Faustino and Giovita.
The Monumental Cemetery and the Lighthouse of Brescia.
Teatro Grande.
Piazza Arnaldo
Pinacoteca Tosio Martinengo: Angel by Raphael.
University of Brescia, Economics faculty.
Classic lyceum "Arnaldo", established in 1797, is one of the oldest and most prominent high schools in Brescia.
Vineyards in the middle of the city with an extension of 4 ha
The business district of Brescia.
A street in the old town.
A station of Brescia Metro.
Brescia's former tram network (1882–1949)
The train station of Brescia.
Mille Miglia Museum.
The monument representing a lion, the sign on the coat of arms of the city. The monument is also commonly considered a dedication to the "Lioness of Italy", nickname given to the city after the resistance the people of Brescia put in place during the Ten Days of Brescia in 1849 against the Austrians.
Monument to La Bella Italia, realized in 1864 in the memory of the Ten Days of Brescia.
Monument to Arnaldo in the homonymous square, realized in 1882.
Monument to Giuseppe Garibaldi, realized in 1889.
Interior view of the Santa Maria delle Grazie church
Internal view of the Santuario di Santa Maria delle Grazie church
Internal view of the Santissimo Corpo di Cristo church
Former San Barnaba church
San Faustino in Riposo church
San Marco Evangelista church
Bonomini Tomb also known as the Dog's Tomb
Maggi-Gambara Palace
Bertolotti Palace
Beretta Palace
Martinengo Palace
Piazza Duomo by night
The Castle's main entrance
Street in the old city center
Roman ruins
Roman Theatre section
Corso Zanardelli and Teatro Grande main entrance
Bruni Conter Palace and Niccolò Tartaglia statue
Torre d'Ercole
Steps in the old town
Arcades
Medieval fountain
Tagliaferri fountain
Neptune fountain
Minerva fountain
Pallata fountain
Armed Brescia fountain
Private fountain
Private fountain
Vescovado fountain

Additionally, Brescia is close to important tourist destinations (Milan can be directly reached in 45 minutes by train, Venice and Florence in about 2 hours) and is one of the cheapest cities in Italy in terms of hotel stays.

Po (river)

Longest river in Italy.

Longest river in Italy.

Horse riding along the Po Delta.
The Po in San Mauro Torinese in July 2012.

The Po then extends along the 45th parallel north before ending at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea near Venice.

Polo wearing a Tartar outfit, print from the 18th century

Marco Polo

Venetian merchant, explorer and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295.

Venetian merchant, explorer and writer who travelled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295.

Polo wearing a Tartar outfit, print from the 18th century
XVI century portrait of Marco Polo
Corte Seconda del Milion is still named after the nickname of Polo, Il Milione
Mosaic of Marco Polo displayed in the Palazzo Doria-Tursi, in Genoa, Italy
Pietro d'Abano, philosopher, doctor and astrologer
San Lorenzo church in the sestiere of Castello (Venice), where Polo was buried. The photo shows the church as is today, after the 1592 rebuilding.
Plaque on Teatro Malibran, which was built upon Marco Polo's house
Statue of Marco Polo in Hangzhou, China
Polo meeting Kublai Khan.
A page from Il Milione, from a manuscript believed to date between 1298–1299.
Kublai Khan's court, from French "Livre des merveilles"
Text of the letter of Pope Innocent IV "to the ruler and people of the Tartars", brought to Güyüg Khan by John de Carpini, 1245
Seal of Güyük Khan using the classical Mongolian script, as found in a letter sent to the Roman Pope Innocent IV in 1246.
Letter from Arghun, Khan of the Mongol Ilkhanate, to Pope Nicholas IV, 1290.
Seal of the Mongol ruler Ghazan in a 1302 letter to Pope Boniface VIII, with an inscription in Chinese seal script
Handwritten notes by Christopher Columbus on a Latin edition of Polo's book.
The Fra Mauro map, published c. 1450 by the Venetian monk Fra Mauro.
Italian banknote, issued in 1982, portraying Marco Polo.

Born in Venice, Marco learned the mercantile trade from his father and his uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan.

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death

Renaissance architecture

European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.

Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death
Temple of Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As one of the most important temples of Ancient Rome, it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto
Palladio's engraving of Bramante's Tempietto
Plan of Bramante's Tempietto in Montorio
The Piazza del Campidoglio
The Romanesque Florence Baptistery was the object of Brunelleschi's studies of perspective
Pope Sixtus IV, 1477, builder of the Sistine Chapel. Fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace.
Four Humanist philosophers under the patronage of the Medici: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Angelo Poliziano and Demetrius Chalcondyles. Fresco by Domenico Ghirlandaio.
Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, head of the Medici Bank, sponsored civic building programs. Posthumous portrait by Pontormo.
The Church of the Certosa di Pavia, Lombardy
Scuola Grande di San Marco, Venice
Raphael's unused plan for St. Peter's Basilica
Facade of Sant'Agostino, Rome, built in 1483 by Giacomo di Pietrasanta
Classical Orders, engraving from the Encyclopédie vol. 18. 18th century.
The Dome of St Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Courtyard of Palazzo Strozzi, Florence
Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence.
The dome of Florence Cathedral (the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore)
The church of San Lorenzo
Palazzo Medici Riccardi by Michelozzo. Florence, 1444
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, Mantua, the façade
Façade of Santa Maria Novella, 1456–70
The crossing of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan (1490)
picture above
The Palazzo Farnese, Rome (1534–1545). Designed by Sangallo and Michelangelo.
Palazzo Pandolfini, Florence, by Raphael
Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne.
Palazzo Te, Mantua
St Peter's Basilica
The vestibule of the Laurentian Library
Il Gesù, designed by Giacomo della Porta.
Villa Capra "La Rotonda"
Keystone with a profile of a man, Palazzo Giusti, Verona, Italy
The House of the Blackheads in Riga, Latvia
Royal Summer Palace in Prague is considered the purest Renaissance architecture outside of Italy.
Cathedral of St James, Šibenik
English Renaissance: Hardwick Hall (1590–1597).
French Renaissance: Château de Chambord (1519–39)
Juleum in Helmstedt, Germany (example of Weser Renaissance)
Antwerp City Hall (finished in 1564)
Courtyard of Wawel Castle exemplifies first period of Polish Renaissance
Cloister of the Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal, (1557–1591), Diogo de Torralva and Filippo Terzi.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.
Nordic Renaissance: Frederiksborg Palace (1602–20)
The Escorial (1563–1584), Madrid
Cathedral Basilica of Salvador built between 1657 and 1746, a UNESCO WHS.
The large Basilica of San Francisco in Quito, built between 1535 and 1650, a UNESCO World Heritage Site city.

In the 15th century, Florence, Venice and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them, making the movement of artists possible.

Woven silk textile from Tomb No. 1 at Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan province, China, dated to the Western Han Era, 2nd century BCE

Silk Road

Network of Eurasian trade routes active from the second century BCE until the mid-15th century.

Network of Eurasian trade routes active from the second century BCE until the mid-15th century.

Woven silk textile from Tomb No. 1 at Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan province, China, dated to the Western Han Era, 2nd century BCE
Chinese jade and steatite plaques, in the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes. 4th–3rd century BCE. British Museum.
Achaemenid Persian Empire at its greatest extent, showing the Royal Road.
Soldier with a centaur in the Sampul tapestry, wool wall hanging, 3rd–2nd century BCE, Xinjiang Museum, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.
A ceramic horse head and neck (broken from the body), from the Chinese Eastern Han dynasty (1st–2nd century CE)
Bronze coin of Constantius II (337–361), found in Karghalik, Xinjiang, China
The Silk Road transmission of Buddhism: Mahayana Buddhism first entered the Chinese Empire (Han dynasty) during the Kushan Era. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
Central Asia during Roman times, with the first Silk Road
A Westerner on a camel, Northern Wei dynasty (386–534)
Map showing Byzantium along with the other major silk road powers during China's Southern dynasties period of fragmentation.
Coin of Constans II (r. 641–648), who is named in Chinese sources as the first of several Byzantine emperors to send embassies to the Chinese Tang dynasty
A Chinese sancai statue of a Sogdian man with a wineskin, Tang dynasty (618–907)
The empires and city-states of the Horn of Africa, such as the Axumites were important trading partners in the ancient Silk Road.
After the Tang defeated the Gokturks, they reopened the Silk Road to the west.
Marco Polo's caravan on the Silk Road, 1380
Map of Eurasia and Africa showing trade networks, c. 870
The Round city of Baghdad between 767 and 912 was the most important urban node along the Silk Road.
A lion motif on Sogdian polychrome silk, 8th century, most likely from Bukhara
Yuan Dynasty era Celadon vase from Mogadishu.
Map of Marco Polo's travels in 1271–1295
Port cities on the maritime silk route featured on the voyages of Zheng He.
Plan of the Silk Road with its maritime branch
Yangshan Port of Shanghai, China
Port of Trieste
Trans-Eurasia Logistics
The Silk Road in the 1st century
The Nestorian Stele, created in 781, describes the introduction of Nestorian Christianity to China
Fragment of a wall painting depicting Buddha from a stupa in Miran along the Silk Road (200AD - 400AD)
A blue-eyed Central Asian monk teaching an East-Asian monk, Bezeklik, Turfan, eastern Tarim Basin, China, 9th century; the monk on the right is possibly Tocharian, although more likely Sogdian.
Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by Indian Buddhist King Ashoka, 3rd century BCE; see Edicts of Ashoka, from Kandahar. This edict advocates the adoption of "godliness" using the Greek term Eusebeia for Dharma. Kabul Museum.
A statue depicting Buddha giving a sermon, from Sarnath, 3000 km southwest of Urumqi, Xinjiang, 8th century
Iconographical evolution of the Wind God. Left: Greek Wind God from Hadda, 2nd century. Middle: Wind God from Kizil, Tarim Basin, 7th century. Right: Japanese Wind God Fujin, 17th century.
Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh
Sultanhani caravanserai
Shaki Caravanserai, Shaki, Azerbaijan
Two-Storeyed Caravanserai, Baku, Azerbaijan
Bridge in Ani, capital of medieval Armenia
Taldyk pass
Medieval fortress of Amul, Turkmenabat, Turkmenistan
Zeinodin Caravanserai
Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel, sancai ceramic glaze, Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907)
The ruins of a Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) Chinese watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province
A late Zhou or early Han Chinese bronze mirror inlaid with glass, perhaps incorporated Greco-Roman artistic patterns
A Chinese Western Han dynasty (202 BCE – 9 CE) bronze rhinoceros with gold and silver inlay
Han dynasty Granary west of Dunhuang on the Silk Road.
Green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 CE) tomb, Guangxi, southern China

Around the same time, the Venetian explorer Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China.

Vienna

National capital, largest city, and one of nine states of Austria.

National capital, largest city, and one of nine states of Austria.

Depiction of Vienna in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
Vienna in 1683
Vienna from Belvedere by Bernardo Bellotto, 1758
Vienna's Ringstraße and the State Opera in around 1870
Color lithograph of Vienna, 1900
Crowds greet Adolf Hitler as he rides in an open car through Vienna in March 1938
Occupation zones in Vienna, 1945–55
Vienna in 1966
Karlskirche, located on the south side of Karlsplatz in the 4th city district
Satellite image of Vienna (2018)
Map of the districts of Vienna with numbers
Albertina Terrace in the Innere Stadt
The Ring Road (Ringstraße) with a historical tram
The Debating Chamber of the former House of Deputies of Austria in the parliament
Interior of Vienna's historical Rathaus, the seat of city mayor
Messe Wien Congress Center
Austria Center Vienna (ACV)
“HoHo Wien” in January 2020
Monument of Johann Strauss II at Stadtpark, Vienna
State Opera (Staatsoper)
Hofburg Palace
Musikverein Vienna
Statue of Mozart during spring in Vienna
Courtyard of the Museumsquartier with Enzi seating furniture
Leopold Museum
Liechtenstein Museum
Hotel Sacher
View of the city from Stephansdom
Statue of Friedrich Schiller in front of the Academy of Fine Arts
The Vienna University of Economics and Business
The University of Vienna's main building
TU Wien
The Schönbrunn gardens in autumn
Ernst-Happel-Stadion in the Prater
Sachertorte
Wiener Schnitzel
A typical Heurigen-Restaurant in Grinzing
Demel Café
Stephansplatz metro station
Vienna Airport terminal 3 arrivals lounge
UN complex in Vienna, with the Austria Center Vienna in front, taken from the Danube Tower in the nearby Donaupark before the extensive building work
Many international organizations and offices are located in Donaustadt.
Albertina
Austrian Parliament Building
Belvedere Palace
Burgtheater
Graben
Hundertwasserhaus
Karlskirche at dusk
Kunsthistorisches Museum
Naturhistorisches Museum
Palais Augarten
Rathaus
Schönbrunn Zoo
Spanish Riding School
Stephansplatz
St. Stephen's Cathedral
Prince Eugene Monument
View of Hofburg
Vienna Secession building
Vienna State Opera
Wiener Riesenrad

The railway system connects Vienna's main station Vienna Hauptbahnhof with other European cities, like Berlin, Bratislava, Budapest, Brussels, Cologne, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Ljubljana, Munich, Prague, Venice, Wrocław, Warsaw, Zagreb and Zürich.

Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204

Fourth Crusade

Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.

Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204
The crusaders conquering the City of Zadar, painted by Tintoretto
Dandolo Preaching the Crusade by Gustave Doré
The Crusader attack on Constantinople, from a Venetian manuscript of Geoffrey de Villehardouin's history, c. 1330
Capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204
The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). The most infamous action of the Fourth Crusade was the sack of the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople.
Partition of the Byzantine Empire into The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, and Despotate of Epirus after 1204

The majority of the crusading army that set out from Venice in early October 1202 originated from areas within France.