Ventricular assist device

left ventricular assist deviceventricular assist devicesLVADJarvik 2000left ventricular assist devicesBerlin heartblood pumpHeartMate IIleftleft ventricular assist
A ventricular assist device (VAD) is an electromechanical device for assisting cardiac circulation, which is used either to partially or to completely replace the function of a failing heart.wikipedia
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Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
The function of VADs is different from that of artificial cardiac pacemakers; some are for short-term use, typically for patients recovering from myocardial infarction (heart attack) and for patients recovering from cardiac surgery; some are for long-term use (months to years to perpetuity), typically for patients suffering from advanced heart failure.
A ventricular assist device (for the left, right, or both ventricles), or occasionally a heart transplant may be recommended in those with severe disease that persists despite all other measures.

Artificial heart

Jarvik-7Barney Clarkmechanical heart
VADs are distinct from artificial hearts, which are designed to assume cardiac function, and generally require the removal of the patient's heart.
An artificial heart is distinct from a ventricular assist device (VAD) designed to support a failing heart.

Destination therapy

In some instances VAD's are also used as destination therapy (DT).
The term usually refers to ventricular assist devices or mechanical circulatory support to keep the existing heart going, not just until a heart transplant can occur, but for the rest of the patient's life expectancy.

Michael DeBakey

Michael E. DeBakeyDr. Michael DeBakeyMichael Ellis DeBakey
The first successful implantation of a left ventricular assist device was completed in 1966 by Dr. Michael E. DeBakey to a 37-year-old woman.
DeBakey's surgical innovations included coronary bypass operations, carotid endarterectomy, artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
A ventricular assist device (VAD) is an electromechanical device for assisting cardiac circulation, which is used either to partially or to completely replace the function of a failing heart.
In very severe cases of heart failure, a small pump called a ventricular assist device may be implanted which supplements the heart's own pumping ability.

O. H. Frazier

These devices began to gain acceptance in the late 1990s as heart surgeons including Eric Rose, O. H. Frazier and Mehmet Oz began popularizing the concept that patients could live outside the hospital.
O. H. "Bud" Frazier is a heart surgeon and director of cardiovascular surgery research at the Texas Heart Institute (THI), best known for his work in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) of failing hearts using left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and total artificial hearts (TAH).

Eric Rose

Eric A. Rose
These devices began to gain acceptance in the late 1990s as heart surgeons including Eric Rose, O. H. Frazier and Mehmet Oz began popularizing the concept that patients could live outside the hospital.
Later, he led the REMATCH Trial, published 2001, which compared the permanent implantation of a Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) with conventional medical treatment in people with severe heart failure who were not eligible for heart transplantation.

William F. Bernhard

The first successful long-term implantation of an artificial LVAD was conducted in 1988 by Dr. William F. Bernhard of Boston Children's Hospital Medical Center and Thermedics, Inc of Woburn, MA under a National Institutes of Health (NIH) research contract which developed Heart-mate, an electronically controlled assist device.
Bernhard continued cardiovascular research at Boston Children's Hospital and developed innovative surgical alternatives for cardiovascular disease including the Ventricular Assist Device.

Impeller

impellersimpellorimpeller jets
More recent work has concentrated on continuous flow pumps, which can be roughly categorized as either centrifugal pumps or axial flow impeller driven pumps.
In a failing heart, mechanical circulatory devices often utilize a continuous axial-flow impeller pump design.

Mehmet Oz

Dr. OzDr. Mehmet OzDr. Oz Show
These devices began to gain acceptance in the late 1990s as heart surgeons including Eric Rose, O. H. Frazier and Mehmet Oz began popularizing the concept that patients could live outside the hospital.
In the late 1990s, Oz began recommending ventricular assist devices as an alternative for patients with heart failure.

Berlin Heart

Berlin Heart GmbH is a German company that develops, produces and markets ventricular assist devices (VADs).

Intra-aortic balloon pump

intra-aortic balloon pump managementBalloon Pump management and transportIABP
*Intra-aortic balloon pump

Electromechanics

electromechanicalelectro-mechanicalElectromechanical Engineering
A ventricular assist device (VAD) is an electromechanical device for assisting cardiac circulation, which is used either to partially or to completely replace the function of a failing heart.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
The function of VADs is different from that of artificial cardiac pacemakers; some are for short-term use, typically for patients recovering from myocardial infarction (heart attack) and for patients recovering from cardiac surgery; some are for long-term use (months to years to perpetuity), typically for patients suffering from advanced heart failure.

Cardiac surgery

open heart surgeryheart surgeryopen-heart surgery
The function of VADs is different from that of artificial cardiac pacemakers; some are for short-term use, typically for patients recovering from myocardial infarction (heart attack) and for patients recovering from cardiac surgery; some are for long-term use (months to years to perpetuity), typically for patients suffering from advanced heart failure.

Ventricle (heart)

ventricleleft ventricleright ventricle
VADs are designed to assist either the right ventricle (RVAD) or the left ventricle (LVAD), or to assist both ventricles (BiVAD).

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseasecardiovascular
The type of ventricular assistance device applied depends upon the type of underlying heart disease, and upon the pulmonary arterial-resistance, which determines the workload of the right ventricle.

Pump

water pumppumpssteam pump
The pumps used in VADs can be divided into two main categories—pulsatile pumps, that mimic the natural pulsing action of the heart, and continuous flow pumps.

Centrifugal pump

centrifugalcentrifugal pumpscentrifugal pumping systems
They normally use either a centrifugal pump or an axial flow pump.

Axial-flow pump

axial flow pumpaxial machinesaxial pump
More recent work has concentrated on continuous flow pumps, which can be roughly categorized as either centrifugal pumps or axial flow impeller driven pumps. They normally use either a centrifugal pump or an axial flow pump.

Magnetic levitation

diamagnetic levitationelectromagnetic levitationmaglev
Early versions used solid bearings; however, newer pumps, some of which are approved for use in the EU, use either magnetic levitation ("maglev") or hydrodynamic suspension.

Boston Children's Hospital

Children's Hospital BostonBoston Children’s HospitalChildren's Hospital
The first successful long-term implantation of an artificial LVAD was conducted in 1988 by Dr. William F. Bernhard of Boston Children's Hospital Medical Center and Thermedics, Inc of Woburn, MA under a National Institutes of Health (NIH) research contract which developed Heart-mate, an electronically controlled assist device.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
Devices of this kind include the HeartMate IP LVAS, which was approved for use in the US by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 1994.

Pulse

pulse ratepulsationheartbeat
A side effect is that the user will not have a pulse,

Artificial cardiac pacemaker

pacemakerartificial pacemakerpacemakers
The function of VADs is different from that of artificial cardiac pacemakers; some are for short-term use, typically for patients recovering from myocardial infarction (heart attack) and for patients recovering from cardiac surgery; some are for long-term use (months to years to perpetuity), typically for patients suffering from advanced heart failure.