Venus

Morning Starevening starCytherocentricplanet VenusVenerianVenusianCythereanVenus atmospheric entryAphroditeCurrent and future missions to Venus
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.wikipedia
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Solar System

outer Solar Systeminner Solar SystemSol system
It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets (meaning the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east).
The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal.

Sun

solarSolThe Sun
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
It is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, and render Earth uninhabitable.

Planet

planetsFormer classification of planetsplanetary-mass object
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
In order of increasing distance from the Sun, they are the four terrestrials, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, then the four giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

Mercury (planet)

Mercuryplanet MercuryMercurio
Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a mean surface temperature of 735 K, even though Mercury is closer to the Sun.
Like Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet, and never exceeds 28° away from the Sun when viewed from Earth.

Mariner 2

Mariner IIMariner-2
It was the first planet beyond Earth visited by a spacecraft (Mariner 2 in 1962), and the first to be successfully landed on (by Venera 7 in 1970).
Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter.

Terrestrial planet

terrestrial planetsrockyrocky planet
Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun, and bulk composition.
Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun, i.e. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.

Volcanology of Venus

volcanismVenusvolcanalogy
Venus's surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and is periodically resurfaced by volcanism.
The surface of Venus is dominated by volcanic features and has more volcanoes than any other planet in the Solar System.

Runaway greenhouse effect

Hothouserunaway global warmingrunaway greenhouse
It may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect.
An example of this is believed to have happened in the early history of Venus.

Magellan (spacecraft)

MagellanMagellan'' spacecraftMagellan'' (spacecraft)
Venus's thick clouds render observation of its surface impossible in visible light, and the first detailed maps did not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in 1991.
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a 1035 kg robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.

Venera

Venera programmeVenera programVenera 15/16 mission
Venera landers in 1975 and 1982 returned images of a surface covered in sediment and relatively angular rocks. During the Soviet Venera program, the Venera 9 orbiter obtained spectroscopic evidence of lightning on Venus, and the Venera 12 descent probe obtained additional evidence of lightning and thunder.
The Venera series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus.

Ishtar Terra

the northern continent of Ishtar
The northern continent is called Ishtar Terra after Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess of love, and is about the size of Australia.
Ishtar Terra is one of two main highland regions on the planet Venus.

Maxwell Montes

Maxwell Montes, Venus
Maxwell Montes, the highest mountain on Venus, lies on Ishtar Terra.
Maxwell Montes is a mountain massif on the planet Venus, of which a peak (Skadi Mons) is the highest point on the planet's surface.

Ovda Regio

Exceptions are Maxwell Montes, named after James Clerk Maxwell, and highland regions Alpha Regio, Beta Regio, and Ovda Regio.
Ovda Regio is a Venusian crustal plateau located near the equator in the western highland region of Aphrodite Terra that stretches from 10°N to 15°S and 50°E to 110°E.

Aphrodite Terra

the southern continent of Aphrodia
The southern continent is called Aphrodite Terra, after the Greek goddess of love, and is the larger of the two highland regions at roughly the size of South America.
Aphrodite Terra is a highland region on Venus, near the equator.

Poles of astronomical bodies

polespin axisspin axes
It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets (meaning the Sun would rise in the west and set in the east).
Venus rotates in the opposite direction to the other planets, and Uranus has been knocked on its side and rotates almost perpendicular to the rest of the Solar System.

Impact crater

cratercratersimpact basin
The planet has few impact craters, demonstrating that the surface is relatively young, approximately 300–600 million years old.
On other planets and moons that experience more active surface geological processes, such as Earth, Venus, Mars, Europa, Io and Titan, visible impact craters are less common because they become eroded, buried or transformed by tectonics over time.

Alpha Regio

Exceptions are Maxwell Montes, named after James Clerk Maxwell, and highland regions Alpha Regio, Beta Regio, and Ovda Regio.
Alpha Regio is a region of the planet Venus extending for about 1500 kilometers centered at 22°S, 5°E.

Venera 7

It was the first planet beyond Earth visited by a spacecraft (Mariner 2 in 1962), and the first to be successfully landed on (by Venera 7 in 1970).
Venera 7 (Венера-7, meaning Venus 7) was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus.

Beta Regio

Exceptions are Maxwell Montes, named after James Clerk Maxwell, and highland regions Alpha Regio, Beta Regio, and Ovda Regio.
Beta Regio is a region of the planet Venus known as a volcanic rise.

Venus Express

Venus Express spacecraftVenus Express'' (VEX)
The European Space Agency's Venus Express in 2007 detected whistler waves further confirming the occurrence of lightning on Venus.
Venus Express (VEX) was the first Venus exploration mission of the European Space Agency (ESA).

Elongation (astronomy)

elongationsolar elongationElong
Orbiting within Earth's orbit, Venus is an inferior planet and never appears to venture far from the Sun; its maximum angular distance from the Sun (elongation) is 47.8°.
When an inferior planet is visible after sunset, it is near its greatest eastern elongation. When an inferior planet is visible before sunrise, it is near its greatest western elongation. The angle of the maximum elongation (east or west) for Mercury is between 18° and 28°, while that for Venus is between 45° and 47°.

Venera 9

Venera 9 landerimage and video transfer
During the Soviet Venera program, the Venera 9 orbiter obtained spectroscopic evidence of lightning on Venus, and the Venera 12 descent probe obtained additional evidence of lightning and thunder.
Venera 9 (Венера-9 meaning Venus 9), manufacturer's designation: 4V-1 No. 660, was a Soviet unmanned space mission to Venus.

Venera 12

12 Venera 12 lander
During the Soviet Venera program, the Venera 9 orbiter obtained spectroscopic evidence of lightning on Venus, and the Venera 12 descent probe obtained additional evidence of lightning and thunder.
The Venera 12 (Венера-12 meaning Venus 12) was a Soviet unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus.

Planetary nomenclature

Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclatureterrafluctus
The latter three features were named before the current system was adopted by the International Astronomical Union, the body which oversees planetary nomenclature.

Planetary science

planetary scientistplanetary sciencesplanetology
The Venusian surface was a subject of speculation until some of its secrets were revealed by planetary science in the 20th century.
The best known research topics of planetary geology deal with the planetary bodies in the near vicinity of the Earth: the Moon, and the two neighbouring planets: Venus and Mars.