Verb

verbsv.verbal morphologyaction verbsubject-verb agreementsubject–verb agreementverbal rootmain verbmasdar (verbal noun)root
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).wikipedia
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Infinitive

to''-infinitivebare infinitiveinfinitival
In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive.
Infinitive (abbreviated ) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
One basic description of a language's syntax is the sequence in which the subject (S), verb (V), and object (O) usually appear in sentences.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice.
Tenses are usually manifested by the use of specific forms of verbs, particularly in their conjugation patterns.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes numeral, article, or determiner.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflect
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. Grammatical tense is the use of auxiliary verbs or inflections to convey whether the action or state is before, simultaneous with, or after some reference point.
The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions, postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmode
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. If the verbal expression of modality involves inflection, we have the special case of mood; moods include the indicative (as in "I am there"), the subjunctive (as in "I wish I were there"), and the imperative ("Be there!").
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

Grammatical person

personthird personfirst person
A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.
It also frequently affects verbs, and sometimes nouns or possessive relationships.

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.
Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, that is to say with which the verb agrees (John is but John and Mary are). If there is no verb, as in John - what an idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand him!, then 'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can be described as the 'topic' of the sentence.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.
2) Noun modifiers (such as adjectives) and verbs may also have different forms for each number class and be inflected to match the number of the nouns to which they refer (number is an agreement category).

Adverb

adverbsadv.abstract noun
Intransitive verbs may be followed by an adverb (a word that addresses how, where, when, and how often) or end a sentence. Copular verbs ( linking verbs) can't be followed by an adverb or end a sentence, but instead must be followed by a noun or adjective, whether in a single word or phrase.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, determiner, clause, preposition, or sentence.

Transitive verb

transitivetransitive verbstransitivity
A transitive verb is followed by a noun or noun phrase.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.

Polypersonal agreement

polypersonalismpolypersonalagreement morphemes
On the other hand, Basque, Georgian, and some other languages, have polypersonal agreement: the verb agrees with the subject, the direct object, and even the secondary object if present, a greater degree of head-marking than is found in most European languages.
In linguistics, polypersonal agreement or polypersonalism is the agreement of a verb with more than one of its arguments (usually up to four).

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
Copular verbs ( linking verbs) can't be followed by an adverb or end a sentence, but instead must be followed by a noun or adjective, whether in a single word or phrase.
A copula is often a verb or a verb-like word, though this is not universally the case.

Impersonal verb

impersonalimpersonal constructionsimpersonal existential verb
Weather verbs often appear to be impersonal (subjectless, or avalent) in null-subject languages like Spanish, where the verb llueve means "It rains".
In many languages the verb takes a third person singular inflection and often appears with an expletive subject.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.
These related words can be, depending on the language: determiners, pronouns, numerals, quantifiers, possessives, adjectives, past and passive participles, articles, verbs, adverbs, complementizers, and adpositions.

Modal verb

modalmodal auxiliariesmodal auxiliary
If the verbal expression of modality involves the use of an auxiliary verb, that auxiliary is called a modal verb.
A modal verb is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality – that is: likelihood, ability, permission, request, capacity, suggestions, order and obligation, and advice etc. They always take base form of verb with them.

Auxiliary verb

auxiliaryauxiliary verbsauxiliaries
Grammatical tense is the use of auxiliary verbs or inflections to convey whether the action or state is before, simultaneous with, or after some reference point.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
The second element (noun phrase, adjective, or infinitive) is called a complement, which completes a clause that would not otherwise have the same meaning.
A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate, the latter typically a verb phrase, a verb with any objects and other modifiers.

Subjunctive mood

subjunctivePresent subjunctiveconjunctive
If the verbal expression of modality involves inflection, we have the special case of mood; moods include the indicative (as in "I am there"), the subjunctive (as in "I wish I were there"), and the imperative ("Be there!").
Subjunctive forms of verbs are typically used to express various states of unreality such as wish, emotion, possibility, judgment, opinion, obligation, or action that have not yet occurred; the precise situations in which they are used vary from language to language.

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
If the verbal expression of modality involves inflection, we have the special case of mood; moods include the indicative (as in "I am there"), the subjunctive (as in "I wish I were there"), and the imperative ("Be there!").
An example of a verb used in the imperative mood is the English sentence "Please be quiet".

Ditransitive verb

ditransitiveditransitive verbsditransitives
Ditransitive (valency = 3, trivalent): the verb has a subject, a direct object, and an indirect object. For example: "He gives her a flower" or "She gave John the watch."
In grammar, a ditransitive verb is a verb which takes a subject and two objects which refer to a theme and a recipient.

Lexical aspect

aktionsartaspectaktionsart or lexical aspect
Aspect can either be lexical, in which case the aspect is embedded in the verb's meaning (as in "the sun shines," where "shines" is lexically stative), or it can be grammatically expressed, as in "I am running."
The lexical aspect or aktionsart (, plural aktionsarten ) of a verb is a part of the way in which that verb is structured in relation to time.

Perfect (grammar)

perfectperfect aspectperfect tense
perfect, which combines elements of both aspect and tense and in which both a prior event and the state resulting from it are expressed (as in "he has gone there", i.e. "he went there and he is still there")
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated ' or ') is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.

Participle

past participlepresent participleparticiples
In the Indo-European languages, verbal adjectives are generally called participles.
A participle () is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.