Vercingetorix

Vercingétorix
Vercingetorix (, ; c. 82 BC – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.wikipedia
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Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
82 BC – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
It then embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.

Gallic Wars

Gallic Warconquest of GaulRoman conquest of Gaul
82 BC – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
While militarily just as strong as the Romans, the internal division between the Gallic tribes helped ease victory for Caesar, and Vercingetorix's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late.

Battle of Alesia

AlesiaSiege of Alesiapan-Gallic rebellion of 52 BC
At the Battle of Alesia, the Romans besieged and defeated his forces. In the Battle of Alesia (September, 52 BC), Caesar built a fortification around the city to besiege it.
It was fought by the army of Julius Caesar against a confederation of Gallic tribes united under the leadership of Vercingetorix of the Arverni.

Oppidum

oppidaforthillfort
Vercingetorix came to power after his formal designation as chieftain of the Arverni at the oppidum Gergovia in 52 BC.
They were also political centres, the seat of authorities who made decisions that affected large numbers of people, such as the appointment of Vercingetorix as head of the Gallic revolt in 52 BC.

Gauls

GallicGaulishGaul
82 BC – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. Having been appointed governor of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (modern Provence) in 58 BC, Julius Caesar proceeded to conquer the Gallic tribes beyond over the next few years, maintaining control through a careful divide and rule strategy.
While they were militarily just as brave as the Romans, the internal division between the Gallic tribes guaranteed an easy victory for Caesar, and Vercingetorix's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late.

Battle of Gergovia

GergoviaSiege of Gergoviabesieged Gergovia
He won the Battle of Gergovia against Julius Caesar in which several thousand Romans and allies died and Caesar's Roman legions withdrew.
The battle was fought between a Roman Republican army, led by proconsul Julius Caesar, and Gallic forces led by Vercingetorix, who was also the Arverni chieftain.

Arverni

AverniArvernianArvernes
82 BC – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
However, there were at least two later attempts to re-establish rulership by Celtillus and Vercingetorix.

Julius Caesar

CaesarGaius Julius CaesarJulius Cæsar
82 BC – 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. He won the Battle of Gergovia against Julius Caesar in which several thousand Romans and allies died and Caesar's Roman legions withdrew. Having been appointed governor of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (modern Provence) in 58 BC, Julius Caesar proceeded to conquer the Gallic tribes beyond over the next few years, maintaining control through a careful divide and rule strategy.
Vercingetorix's attempt in 52 BC to unite them against Roman invasion came too late.

Commentarii de Bello Gallico

De Bello GallicoCommentaries on the Gallic WarGallic Wars
Vercingetorix is primarily known through Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War.
Among these, Diviciacus and Vercingetorix are notable for their contributions to the Gauls during war.

Auvergne

Auvergne regionAuvergnatAuvergne (région)
To this day, Vercingetorix is considered a folk hero in Auvergne, his native region.
Vercingetorix was elected king in 52 BC.

Scorched earth

scorched-earthscorched earth policyscorched earth tactics
He adopted the policy of retreating to natural fortifications, and undertook an early example of a scorched earth strategy by burning towns to prevent the Roman legions from living off the land.
The second case shows actual military value: during the Great Gallic War the Gauls under Vercingetorix planned to lure the Roman armies into Gaul and then trap and obliterate them.

Gergovia

Vercingetorix came to power after his formal designation as chieftain of the Arverni at the oppidum Gergovia in 52 BC.
The battle was fought between a Roman Republic army, led by proconsul Julius Caesar and Gallic forces led by Vercingetorix.

Avaricum

Siege of Avaricum
However, the capital of the Bituriges, Avaricum (near modern-day Bourges), a Gallic settlement directly in Caesar's path, was spared.
Vercingetorix, aware that he had already been bested three times, decided to change tactics.

Bituriges

Bituriges CubiBiturigensesBiturigum
However, the capital of the Bituriges, Avaricum (near modern-day Bourges), a Gallic settlement directly in Caesar's path, was spared.
What is more, the fact that Avaricum (Bourges) was the only Celtic city that Vercingetorix did not burn, contrary to his scorched earth strategy, upon the approach of Caesar's legions is another proof of the political importance of the Bituriges.

Vercingétorix monument

Monument à VercingétorixVercingétorixVercingétorix Memorial
Napoleon III erected a seven-meter-tall Vercingétorix monument in 1865, created by the sculptor Aimé Millet, on the supposed site of Alesia.
The Vercingetorix Monument (1865) is a statuary monument dedicated to the Gaulish chieftain Vercingetorix, defeated by Julius Caesar in the Gallic Wars.

Alesia (city)

AlesiaAlésiaarchaeological site of Alesia
Vercingetorix then decided to follow Caesar but suffered heavy losses (as did the Romans and allies) during a cavalry battle and he retreated and moved to another stronghold, Alesia.
Alesia is best known for being the site of the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC that marked the defeat of the Gauls under Vercingetorix by the Romans under Julius Caesar.

Clermont-Ferrand

ClermontClermont FerrandClermont-Ferrand, France
Many other monumental statues of Vercingetorix were erected in France during the 19th century, including one by Bartholdi on the Place de Jaude in Clermont-Ferrand (see image above).
Clermont-Ferrand's most famous public square is Place de Jaude, on which stands a grand statue of Vercingetorix astride a warhorse and brandishing a sword.

Investment (military)

circumvallationinvestmentinvested
In the Battle of Alesia (September, 52 BC), Caesar built a fortification around the city to besiege it.
Julius Caesar in his Commentaries on the Gallic War describes his textbook use of the circumvallation and contravallation to defeat the Gauls under their chieftain Vercingetorix at the Siege of Alesia in September 52 BC.

Divide and rule

divide and conquerdivide et imperadivide-and-rule
Having been appointed governor of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (modern Provence) in 58 BC, Julius Caesar proceeded to conquer the Gallic tribes beyond over the next few years, maintaining control through a careful divide and rule strategy.

Aimé Millet

Napoleon III erected a seven-meter-tall Vercingétorix monument in 1865, created by the sculptor Aimé Millet, on the supposed site of Alesia.
He studied and made first in 1836 at the École des Beaux Arts with David d'Angers and Viollet-le-Duc, who was later to design the base of Millet's statue of Vercingetorix in Alesia.

Vercassivellaunos

Vercassivellaunus
These forces included an army of Arverni led by Vercingetorix's cousin Vercassivellaunos and an army of 10,000 Lemovices led by Sedullos.
Vercassivellaunus(?- 46 BC) was a Gaulish commander of the Arverni who led a relief force to assist Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia.

Carnutes

CarnuteCarnuti
Believing that Caesar would be distracted by the turmoil in Rome following the death of Publius Clodius Pulcher, the Carnutes, under Cotuatus and Conetodunus, made the first move, slaughtering the Romans who had settled in their territory.
The uprising became a general one throughout Gaul, under the leadership of Vercingetorix.

Place de Jaude

JaudeJaude Square
Many other monumental statues of Vercingetorix were erected in France during the 19th century, including one by Bartholdi on the Place de Jaude in Clermont-Ferrand (see image above).
Overlooking the square is a massive statue of the ancient Gallic leader Vercingetorix.

Sedullos

These forces included an army of Arverni led by Vercingetorix's cousin Vercassivellaunos and an army of 10,000 Lemovices led by Sedullos.
This relief force was raised to assist Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia.