Verstehen

interpretative sociologyinterpretivetruth above positivismunderstandinginterpretativeinterpretative sociological theoryinterpretive sociology ''(verstehende Soziologie)interpretivismunderstandunderstanding (Verstehen)
Verstehen (, literally: "to understand"), in the context of German philosophy and social sciences in general, has been used since the late 19th century – in English as in German – with the particular sense of the "interpretive or participatory" examination of social phenomena.wikipedia
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Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
The term is closely associated with the work of the German sociologist, Max Weber, whose antipositivism established an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action.
Weber was a key proponent of methodological anti-positivism, arguing for the study of social action through interpretive (rather than purely empiricist) means, based on understanding the purpose and meaning that individuals attach to their own actions.

Antipositivism

antipositivistinterpretivismanti-positivist
The term is closely associated with the work of the German sociologist, Max Weber, whose antipositivism established an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action.
Both Weber and Georg Simmel pioneered the verstehen (or 'interpretative') approach toward social science; a systematic process in which an outside observer attempts to relate to a particular cultural group, or indigenous people, on their own terms and from their own point of view.

Hermeneutics

hermeneutichermeneuticalhermeneutically
In this sense, it is developed in the context of the theory and practice of interpretation (as understood in the context of hermeneutics) and contrasted with the external objectivating third-person perspective of explanation (das Erklären) in which human agency, subjectivity, and its products are analyzed as effects of impersonal natural forces in the natural sciences and social structures in sociology.
19th- and 20th-century hermeneutics emerged as a theory of understanding (Verstehen) through the work of Friedrich Schleiermacher (Romantic hermeneutics and methodological hermeneutics), August Böckh (methodological hermeneutics), Wilhelm Dilthey (epistemological hermeneutics), Martin Heidegger (ontological hermeneutics, hermeneutic phenomenology, and transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology), Hans-Georg Gadamer (ontological hermeneutics), Leo Strauss (Straussian hermeneutics), Paul Ricœur (hermeneutic phenomenology), Walter Benjamin (Marxist hermeneutics), Ernst Bloch (Marxist hermeneutics), Jacques Derrida (radical hermeneutics, namely deconstruction), Richard Kearney (diacritical hermeneutics), Fredric Jameson (Marxist hermeneutics), and John Thompson (critical hermeneutics).

Positivism

positivistpositivisticpositivists
The term is closely associated with the work of the German sociologist, Max Weber, whose antipositivism established an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action.
Weber regarded sociology as the study of social action, using critical analysis and verstehen techniques.

Human science

human sciencesMoral Sciencemoral sciences
Verstehen was introduced into philosophy and the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften) by the German historist philosopher Johann Gustav Droysen.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
The term is closely associated with the work of the German sociologist, Max Weber, whose antipositivism established an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action.
The linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to increasingly interpretative, hermeneutic, and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society.

Wilhelm Dilthey

DiltheyAnalytic psychology (Dilthey)Diltheyan
The concept of Verstehen was later used by the German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey to describe the first-person participatory perspective that agents have on their individual experience as well as their culture, history, and society.
The distinction is based on the more general distinction between explanatory/explanative sciences (erklärende Wissenschaften), on the one hand, and descriptive/interpretive sciences (beschreibende Wissenschaften or verstehende Wissenschaften, that is, the sciences which are based on the Verstehen method), on the other—see below.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
Verstehen (, literally: "to understand"), in the context of German philosophy and social sciences in general, has been used since the late 19th century – in English as in German – with the particular sense of the "interpretive or participatory" examination of social phenomena.
The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values; the antipositivism and verstehen sociology of Max Weber firmly demanded this distinction.

Social actions

social actionpolitical actionaction
The term is closely associated with the work of the German sociologist, Max Weber, whose antipositivism established an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action.

Geisteswissenschaft

Geisteswissenschaftenhumanitiesalpha
Verstehen was introduced into philosophy and the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften) by the German historist philosopher Johann Gustav Droysen.
In the context of methodology on the contrary it has been emphasised, that Geisteswissenschaften such as history and the philological disciplines, relating on empirical data (documents, books and utterances), along with psychology and the social sciences, have a common empirical character, which is essentially based on comprehension (Verstehen) or understanding of expressions of meaning.

Johann Gustav Droysen

DroysenJ. G. DroysenDroysen, Johann Gustav
Verstehen was introduced into philosophy and the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften) by the German historist philosopher Johann Gustav Droysen.

Meaning-making

meaningSocial meaning-makinggives meaning to
Verstehen refers to understanding the meaning of action from the actor's point of view.

Karl-Otto Apel

Apel, Karl-OttoApeltranscendental pragmatics
Jürgen Habermas and Karl-Otto Apel further transformed the concept of Verstehen, reformulating it on the basis of a transcendental-pragmatic philosophy of language and the theory of communicative action.
In Understanding and Explanation: A Transcendental-Pragmatic Perspective, Apel reformulated the difference between understanding (Verstehen) and explanation (Erklärung), which originated in the hermeneutics of Wilhelm Dilthey and interpretive sociology of Max Weber, on the basis of a Peircean-inspired transcendental-pragmatic account of language.

Lifeworld

Lebensweltlife-world
Verstehen also played a role in Edmund Husserl and Alfred Schutz's analysis of the "lifeworld."
Ideally this occurs by communicatively coming to understanding (German Verstehen), but it also occurs through pragmatic negotiations (compare: Seidman, 1997:197).

Economic determinism

economic deterministsdetermineddeterminism
The term is closely associated with the work of the German sociologist, Max Weber, whose antipositivism established an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism, rooted in the analysis of social action.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
In anthropology, Verstehen has come to mean a systematic interpretive process in which an outside observer of a culture attempts to relate to it and understand others.

Historism

historistichistoricismhistorist
Verstehen was introduced into philosophy and the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften) by the German historist philosopher Johann Gustav Droysen.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
The method of the natural sciences (Naturwissenschaften) is explanation (erklären), while that of history is understanding (verstehen).

Martin Heidegger

HeideggerHeideggerianHeidegger, Martin
Twentieth-century philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer have been critical of what they considered to be the romantic and subjective character of Verstehen in Dilthey, although both Dilthey and the early Heidegger were interested in the "facticity" and "life-context" of understanding, and sought to universalize it as the way humans exist through language on the basis of ontology.

Hans-Georg Gadamer

GadamerHans Georg GadamerGadamer, Hans-Georg
Twentieth-century philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer have been critical of what they considered to be the romantic and subjective character of Verstehen in Dilthey, although both Dilthey and the early Heidegger were interested in the "facticity" and "life-context" of understanding, and sought to universalize it as the way humans exist through language on the basis of ontology.

Facticity

facticalFacticity in Heideggerthrownness
Twentieth-century philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer have been critical of what they considered to be the romantic and subjective character of Verstehen in Dilthey, although both Dilthey and the early Heidegger were interested in the "facticity" and "life-context" of understanding, and sought to universalize it as the way humans exist through language on the basis of ontology.

Ontology

ontologicalontologicallyontologies
Twentieth-century philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and Hans-Georg Gadamer have been critical of what they considered to be the romantic and subjective character of Verstehen in Dilthey, although both Dilthey and the early Heidegger were interested in the "facticity" and "life-context" of understanding, and sought to universalize it as the way humans exist through language on the basis of ontology.

Edmund Husserl

HusserlHusserlianEdmund Huesserl
Verstehen also played a role in Edmund Husserl and Alfred Schutz's analysis of the "lifeworld."