Vertebral column

spinespinal columnspinalbackbonevertebraepleurocoelsvertebralvertebralumbosacralopisthocoelous
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.wikipedia
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Vertebrate

Vertebratavertebratesvertebral
The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord. The spinal nerves leave the spinal cord through these holes.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

Notochord

notocordembryonic notochord cells
The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs.
In vertebrates the notochord becomes part of the vertebral column.

Spinal cavity

spinal canalvertebral canalspine
The vertebral column houses the spinal canal, a cavity that encloses and protects the spinal cord.
The spinal cavity (or vertebral cavity or spinal canal) is the cavity that contains the spinal cord within the vertebral column, formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.

Thoracic vertebrae

dorsal vertebraethoracic vertebrathoracic
There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae and five lumbar vertebrae.
In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs.
As far as short bones are concerned, trabecular alignment has been studied in the vertebral pedicle.

Atlas (anatomy)

atlasatlas boneC1
Two special vertebrae are the atlas and axis, on which the head rests.
In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the most superior (first) cervical vertebra of the spine.

Lumbar vertebrae

lumbar vertebralumbar spinelumbar
There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae and five lumbar vertebrae.
They are the largest segments of the vertebral column and are characterized by the absence of the foramen transversarium within the transverse process (since it is only found in the cervical region) and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body (as found only in the thoracic region).

Chordate

Chordatachordatesnerve cord
The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs.
Cladistically (phylogenetically), vertebrates – chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development – are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.

Axis (anatomy)

axisodontoid processC2
Two special vertebrae are the atlas and axis, on which the head rests.
In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis (from Latin axis, "axle") or epistropheus.

Spinal nerve

spinal nervescervical nervessacral nerves
The spinal nerves leave the spinal cord through these holes.
In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column.

Sacrum

sacralsacral vertebraesacral vertebra
In a human's vertebral column there are normally thirty-three vertebrae; the upper twenty-four are articulating and separated from each other by intervertebral discs, and the lower nine are fused in adults, five in the sacrum and four in the coccyx or tailbone.
The sacrum ( or ; plural: sacra or sacrums ), in human anatomy, is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1–S5 between 18 and 30years of age.

Kyphosis

hunchbackhunchbackedhump
This curve is known as a kyphotic curve.
In the sense of a deformity, it is the pathological curving of the spine, where parts of the spinal column lose some or all of their lordotic profile.

Vertebra

vertebraeneural spineneural arch
The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs.
In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

Intervertebral disc

nucleus pulposusdiscanulus fibrosus
The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate in which the notochord (a flexible rod of uniform composition) found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs. In a human's vertebral column there are normally thirty-three vertebrae; the upper twenty-four are articulating and separated from each other by intervertebral discs, and the lower nine are fused in adults, five in the sacrum and four in the coccyx or tailbone.
An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.

Supraspinous ligament

supraspinal ligamentsupraspinous ligaments
The supraspinous ligament extends the length of the spine running along the back of the spinous processes, from the sacrum to the seventh cervical vertebra.
The supraspinous ligament, also known as the supraspinal ligament, is a ligament found along the vertebral column.

Interspinous ligament

interspinal ligamentinterspinous ligamentsinterspinous
The interspinous ligaments connect the adjoining spinous processes of the vertebrae.
The interspinous ligaments (interspinal ligaments) are thin and membranous ligaments, that connect adjoining spinous processes of the vertebra in the spine.

Somite

somitessclerotomedermatome
The striking segmented pattern of the spine is established during embryogenesis when somites are rhythmically added to the posterior of the embryo.
In vertebrates, somites subdivide into the sclerotomes, myotomes, syndetomes, and dermatomes that give rise to the vertebrae of the vertebral column, rib cage, and part of the occipital bone; skeletal muscle, cartilage, tendons, and skin (of the back).

Anatomical terms of location

ventraldorsalanterior
The vertebral arch is posterior, meaning it faces the back of a person.
Structures may be described as being at the level of a specific spinal vertebra, depending on the section of the vertebral column the structure is at.

Spina bifida

myelomeningocelemeningocelespina bifida occulta
Spina bifida is a congenital disorder in which there is a defective closure of the vertebral arch.
Spina bifida is a birth defect in which there is incomplete closing of the spine and membranes around the spinal cord during early development in pregnancy.

Congenital vertebral anomaly

hemivertebraeBlock vertebraeCongenital vertebral anomalies
Spina bifida is a congenital disorder in which there is a defective closure of the vertebral arch.
Congenital vertebral abnormalities are a collection of malformations of the spine.

Peripheral nervous system

peripheralperipheral nervesPNS
The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system that supplies nerves and receives information from the peripheral nervous system within the body.
Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the vertebral column and skull, or by the blood–brain barrier, which leaves it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries.

Sympathetic nervous system

sympatheticsympathetic nervesympathetic nerves
The spinal nerves provide sympathetic nervous supply to the body, with nerves emerging forming the sympathetic trunk and the splanchnic nerves.
The shorter preganglionic neurons originate in the thoracolumbar division of the spinal cord specifically at T1 to L2~L3, and travel to a ganglion, often one of the paravertebral ganglia, where they synapse with a postganglionic neuron.

Anterior longitudinal ligament

anteriorthe Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
The anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments extend the length of the vertebral column along the front and back of the vertebral bodies.
The anterior longitudinal ligament is a ligament that runs down the anterior surface of the spine.

Axial skeleton

axialaxial bonesaxial muscles
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
In the human skeleton, it consists of 80 bones and is composed of six parts; the skull (22 bones), the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone, the rib cage, sternum and the vertebral column.