Viacom (1952–2006)

ViacomViacom EnterprisesViacom New MediasplitCBS Filmsthe original Viacomoriginal ViacomViacom InternationalViacom, Inc.CBS Films, Inc.
The first incarnation of Viacom Inc. (an acronym of Video & Audio Communications) was an American media conglomerate.wikipedia
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CBS

CBS TelevisionColumbia Broadcasting SystemCBS-TV
It began as CBS Films, the syndication division of the CBS television network in 1952; it was renamed CBS Enterprises in 1968, renamed Viacom in 1970, and spun off into its own company in 1971. The internal rivalry between Les Moonves and Tom Freston, longtime heads of CBS and MTV Networks respectively, and the controversy of Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show, which resulted in MTV being banned from producing any more Super Bowl halftime shows, were also seen as factors. It was intended to include Viacom's slower-growing business, namely CBS, The CW (a merger of UPN and The WB), CBS Radio (since sold to Entercom as of November 17, 2017 ), Simon & Schuster, CBS Outdoor (formerly Viacom Outdoor), Showtime Networks, CBS Television Studios, CBS Television Distribution and CBS Studios International.
In 2000 CBS came under the control of the first Viacom, which was formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971.

CBS Corporation

CBSC'''BSCBS Enterprises
Viacom was spun off into the present-day CBS Corporation and Viacom incarnations, and ceased operations, in 2006.
CBS Corporation is an American multinational media conglomerate with interests primarily in commercial broadcasting, publishing, and television production which was formed as the legal successor to the original Viacom on January 1, 2006.

Showtime (TV network)

ShowtimeShowtime NetworkShowcase
In 1976, Viacom started Showtime, a pay movie channel, with Warner-Amex taking a half-share ownership.
The following week on July 8, Showtime launched on Viacom Cablevision's system in Dublin, California; the channel was originally owned by Viacom.

Showtime Networks

ShowtimeShowtime Networks Inc.Showtime Entertainment
Also in 1983, Viacom reacquired its premium channel Showtime, and later merged it with Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment's The Movie Channel, and later formed Showtime/The Movie Channel, Inc. It was intended to include Viacom's slower-growing business, namely CBS, The CW (a merger of UPN and The WB), CBS Radio (since sold to Entercom as of November 17, 2017 ), Simon & Schuster, CBS Outdoor (formerly Viacom Outdoor), Showtime Networks, CBS Television Studios, CBS Television Distribution and CBS Studios International.
The company was established in 1983 as Showtime/The Movie Channel, Inc. after Viacom and Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment (now Viacom Media Networks) merged their premium channels, Showtime and The Movie Channel respectively, into one division.

National Amusements

National Amusements Inc.CBS's shareholdersNational Amusements, Inc.
In 1986, movie theater owner National Amusements bought controlling interest in Viacom, which brought Sumner Redstone to the company.
It was the parent company of the first incarnation of Viacom, and is the parent company of CBS Corporation and the second incarnation of Viacom that were split off in 2006.

The Movie Channel

TMCStar ChannelStarz Channel
Also in 1983, Viacom reacquired its premium channel Showtime, and later merged it with Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment's The Movie Channel, and later formed Showtime/The Movie Channel, Inc.
On January 1, 1980, TMC discontinued its time-lease arrangement with Nickelodeon (then a sister network under the Warner, and later Viacom umbrellas) and became a 24-hour standalone service.

Blockbuster LLC

BlockbusterBlockbuster VideoBlockbuster Inc.
Redstone retained the Viacom name and made a string of large acquisitions in the early 1990s, announcing plans to merge with Paramount Communications (formerly Gulf+Western), parent of Paramount Pictures, in 1993, and buying the Blockbuster Video chain in 1994.
In 1993, he made an attempt to expand into other areas by investing in Viacom.

KMOV

KMOV-TVKMOX-TVKMOV-DT3
This was followed in 1986 with CBS-owned KMOX-TV in St. Louis; with the purchase, that station's call letters were changed to KMOV.
On May 16, 1986, the original iteration of Viacom, the former CBS Inc. subsidiary and future parent company, completed its $122.5 million purchase of the station; so as to comply with an FCC regulation in place at the time that prohibited TV and radio stations in the same market but with different ownership from having the same callsigns, KMOX-TV's callsign was slightly modified to the present KMOV almost a month later on June 18.

WNYT (TV)

WNYTWAST13
Two years later Viacom added the Sonderling Broadcasting chain, giving it radio stations in New York City, Washington, D.C., Houston, and San Francisco, and one television station, WAST (now WNYT) in Albany, New York.
In 1978, the original iteration of Viacom announced its purchase of Sonderling Broadcasting's holdings and made WAST the company's second television station (after WVIT in New Britain, Connecticut) when the sale was finalized two years later, in March 1980.

Paramount Network

Spike TVSpikeTNN
The merger was completed in 2000, bringing cable channels TNN (now Paramount Network) and Country Music Television (CMT) under Viacom's wing, as well as CBS's production units and TV distributors Eyemark Entertainment (formerly Group W Productions) and King World.
In 1995, TNN and CMT were acquired by Westinghouse, which was in turn acquired by Viacom in 1999.

Financial Interest and Syndication Rules

fin-synowning syndication companiesfin-syn rules
The division was incorporated in 1970 as Viacom and spun off in 1971, amid new FCC rules forbidding television networks from owning syndication companies (the rules were later repealed).
It was the repeal of fin-syn that ultimately made newer broadcast networks such as UPN and The WB financially interesting for their highly vertically integrated parent media conglomerates Paramount Pictures (Viacom) and Time Warner, respectively.

KSLA

KSLA-TV12Shreveport
In 1983 Viacom purchased KSLA in Shreveport, Louisiana, and WHEC-TV in Rochester, New York, in separate transactions.
On January 19, 1983, KSLA-TV Inc. announced it would sell the station to the Viacom International subsidiary of New York City-based Viacom in a tax-free stock swap valued at $29.9 million.

WVIT

WVIT-TVNBC Connecticutits sister television station
Viacom's first broadcast station acquisition came in 1978 when the company purchased WHNB-TV in New Britain, Connecticut, changing its call letters to WVIT.
In the summer of 1977 Plains Television announced it would sell WHNB-TV to the original iteration of Viacom for $15 million.

WHEC-TV

WHEC10NBC 10
In 1983 Viacom purchased KSLA in Shreveport, Louisiana, and WHEC-TV in Rochester, New York, in separate transactions.
In 1983, the Henry group traded channel 10 to the original Viacom in exchange for a pair of radio stations, WDIA in Memphis and KDIA (now KMKY) in Oakland.

Paramount Stations Group

stationsacquired in 1991Paramount
The Paramount and Blockbuster acquisitions gave Viacom access to large television holdings: An archive of programming controlled by Aaron Spelling's company which included, along with his own productions, the pre-1973 ABC and NBC libraries under Worldvision Enterprises and Republic Pictures; and an expanded group of television station properties which merged Viacom's five existing outlets into Paramount's seven-station group.
The original incarnation of Viacom purchased Paramount in 1993, with the deal closing in March 1994; Viacom then merged its own group of five CBS- and NBC-affiliated stations to the PSG fold.

Television network

networknetwork televisionTV network
The division was incorporated in 1970 as Viacom and spun off in 1971, amid new FCC rules forbidding television networks from owning syndication companies (the rules were later repealed).
Two other networks launched within a week of one another in January 1995: The WB Television Network, a joint venture between Time Warner and the Tribune Company, and the United Paramount Network (UPN), formed through a programming alliance between Chris-Craft Industries and Paramount Television (whose parent, Viacom, would later acquire half and later all of the network over the course of its existence).

IHeartMedia

Clear Channel CommunicationsiHeartMedia, Inc.Clear Channel
In 1997, Viacom exited the broadcast radio business, albeit temporarily, when it sold the majority of its stations to Chancellor Media, a predecessor company of iHeartMedia.
By mid-year, rival Viacom (through radio division Infinity Broadcasting, and the original Viacom, not the current one) brought Stern's show back to those six markets.

BET

Black Entertainment TelevisionBET: NotarizedBET.com
In 2001, Viacom completed its purchase of Black Entertainment Television (BET).
In 2001, the network lost its status as a black-owned business when it was bought by media conglomerate Viacom for $3 billion.

Comedy Central

Comedy PartnersComedyCentral.com Comedy Central
In April 2003, Viacom acquired the remaining ownership shares of Comedy Central from Time Warner, integrating Comedy Central into MTV Networks.
On April 1, 1990, Viacom (who owned MTV, VH1, and Nickelodeon) launched a rival channel called Ha! that featured reruns of situation comedies and some original sketch comedy.

Nickelodeon

Nickelodeon ProductionsNickNick Radio
In 1987, Viacom bought MTV Networks, which owned MTV and Nickelodeon.
*Nick on CBS/Nick Jr. on CBS – On September 14, 2002, Nickelodeon began producing a two-hour Saturday morning block for CBS (which was co-owned with Nickelodeon at the time as a result of network parent Viacom's 1999 acquisition of CBS) featuring episodes of series such as As Told by Ginger, The Wild Thornberrys, Rugrats, Hey Arnold!, and Pelswick debuted on most CBS stations.

Les Moonves

Leslie MoonvesCBS
The internal rivalry between Les Moonves and Tom Freston, longtime heads of CBS and MTV Networks respectively, and the controversy of Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show, which resulted in MTV being banned from producing any more Super Bowl halftime shows, were also seen as factors.
Later, he was co-president and co-chief operating officer (COO) of the original Viacom, Inc., the legal predecessor to CBS Corporation, from 2004 until the company split in December 2005.

Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy

Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime showwardrobe malfunctionNipplegate
The internal rivalry between Les Moonves and Tom Freston, longtime heads of CBS and MTV Networks respectively, and the controversy of Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show, which resulted in MTV being banned from producing any more Super Bowl halftime shows, were also seen as factors.
Following the incident, CBS parent company Viacom, and their co-owned subsidiaries MTV and Infinity Broadcasting, enforced a blacklist of Jackson's singles and music videos on many radio formats and music channels worldwide.

UPN

United Paramount NetworkUPN NetworkUnited Paramount Network (UPN)
Viacom used some of these stations to launch the UPN network, which started operations in January 1995 as a joint venture with Chris-Craft Industries. It was intended to include Viacom's slower-growing business, namely CBS, The CW (a merger of UPN and The WB), CBS Radio (since sold to Entercom as of November 17, 2017 ), Simon & Schuster, CBS Outdoor (formerly Viacom Outdoor), Showtime Networks, CBS Television Studios, CBS Television Distribution and CBS Studios International.
The network was originally owned by Chris-Craft Industries and United Television; Viacom (through its Paramount Television unit, which produced most of the network's series) turned the network into a joint venture in 1996 after acquiring a 50% stake in the network, and subsequently purchased Chris-Craft's remaining stake in 2000.

Paramount Pictures

ParamountParamount StudiosParamount British Pictures
Redstone retained the Viacom name and made a string of large acquisitions in the early 1990s, announcing plans to merge with Paramount Communications (formerly Gulf+Western), parent of Paramount Pictures, in 1993, and buying the Blockbuster Video chain in 1994.
In 1993, Sumner Redstone's entertainment conglomerate Viacom made a bid for a merger with Paramount Communications; this quickly escalated into a bidding war with Barry Diller's QVC.

CBS Radio

CBSInfinity BroadcastingCBS Radio Network
It was intended to include Viacom's slower-growing business, namely CBS, The CW (a merger of UPN and The WB), CBS Radio (since sold to Entercom as of November 17, 2017 ), Simon & Schuster, CBS Outdoor (formerly Viacom Outdoor), Showtime Networks, CBS Television Studios, CBS Television Distribution and CBS Studios International.
In 1999, Infinity became a division of Viacom; in 2005, Viacom spun CBS and Infinity Broadcasting back into a separate company, and the division was renamed CBS Radio.